From World University and School Wiki

World University and School Logo Wave

Welcome to World University and School Wiki
which anyone can add to or edit.
The Global, Virtual/Digital, Open, Free, {potentially Degree- and Credit-Granting},
Multilingual University & School
where anyone can teach or take a class or course

  • Add or take a Language.

Select Courses[edit]

  • Add free, open Languages' courses below.


Add free, open Languages' courses Web Site Organization (if any) Degree / Non-degree Instructor's Name Location Other Info Language Tags
MIT OCW Course Finder - Languages MIT OCW non-degree Browser Start anytime English
MIT OCW Translated Courses MIT non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Course's Name http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

Languages - About[edit]

  • Each language is an university or a school, like the current one in English.
  • Here are list of 281 Wikipedias, as one basis for WUaS Languages:
  • The Ethnologue is a list of 7,105 known living languages, as another basis for WUaS Languages:
  • Add languages below, and create a link to a new page for each new subject to wiki-add courses, and teaching and learning resources.
  • Also see
  • Create World University and School in this language, any way you want, but you can start, too, using 'Courses' and 'Subjects.'
  • For each new language, which will become a University and School itself, add language instruction in that language, and to/from that language; this language instruction may become the beginning point for many of these universities/schools.
  • If literacy is a big key to reducing the population explosion especially in the emerging world, WUaS would like to prioritize its wiki language universities & schools' development (the plan is to develop a school in each of 3000-8000 languages) for women beginning around age 5 in countries with highest birth rates on OLPCs and similar computers.
  • Mathematical symbols and languages too, so all symbols, as wiki, to allow for the creation of new symbols.

WUaS Universal Translator[edit]

World University and School, building on Google Translate with its at least 58 languages - - may become the basis for a WUaS Universal Translator, for conversation, translation and academic research, perhaps with a focus on context, to complement other online, translation projects.

MIT OpenCourseware. 2012. MIT OpenCourseware. Cambridge, MA:

One Laptop per Child Translate. 2012.

The Rosetta Project. 2010. The Rosetta Project: A Long Now Foundation Library of Human Language. Long Now Foundation.

Sugar Labs: Translation System. 2011. Sugar Labs: Translation System. (his is the translation server for Sugarlabs. Information on how to use this server can be found in the Translation Team page in the SugarLabs wiki. This server uses Pootle, a free and open source software to enable volunteers to easily translate software into their own languages). Cambridge, MA: Sugar Labs.

TED Open Translation Project. 2011. The TED Open Translation Project . The TED Open Translation Project brings TEDTalks beyond the English-speaking world by offering subtitles, interactive transcripts and the ability for any talk to be translated by volunteers worldwide. Monterey, CA: TED Talks.

Van Grove, Jennifer. 2010. Google Adds Virtual Keyboards for Search in 35 Languages. April 29.

To start a new language - for a Language Template - use this Language Template:

Individual Languages[edit]

Add Languages Web Site Organization (if any) Degree / Non-degree Instructor's Name Location Other Info Language Tags Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator
FSI Language Courses US Government Non-degree Browser Welcome to - the home for language courses developed by the Foreign Service Institute. These courses were developed by the United States government and are in the public domain. This site is dedicated to making these language courses freely available in an electronic format. This site is not affiliated in any way with any government entity; it is an independent, non-profit effort to foster the learning of worldwide languages. Courses here are made available through the private efforts of individuals who are donating their time and resources to provide quality materials for language learning.
Non-degree Browser

Tongan language
Add Languages - to which to link free, open courses Language (local) Countries where this language is spoken University and School Language Moderator
Akan Akana
Amharic language አማርኛ Ethiopia
Arabic language Arabic language العربية Learn Arabic Standish, Sarah. 2010. Learn Arabic. Syllabus. Portland, OR: Lincoln High School.
Armenian language Հայերեն
Aymara language Aymar
Bantu languages Bantu
Basque language Euskara
Bassa language Bassa Liberia
Bengali / Bangla language Bengali language Bengali / Bangla বাংলা
Bhutanese / Dzongkha language ཇོང་ཁ
Bulgarian Български
Catalan language Català
Chinook language (Warm Springs' Indian Reservation, Oregon)
Chukchansi language Chukchansi
Croatian language Hrvatski
Delaware language United States
Danish language Dansk
Dutch language Nederlands
English language England
Estonian language Eesti language
Finnish language Suomi
Fon language Yorùbá
French language Français
German language Deutsch Learning and teaching German -,,2547,00.html
Grebo language Grebo Liberia
Greek language Ελληνικά
Gujarati language ગુજરાતી
Hindi language हिन्दी
Hupa language
Icelandic language Íslenska
Igbo language Igbo
Inuktitut language (Inuit) ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ
Italian language Italian Italiano
Japanese language Japanese 日本語
Javanese language Basa Jawa
Khmer language Khmer ភាសាខ្មែរ
Kinyarwanda language Ikinyarwanda Rwanda
Kiyombe or Yombe language Kiyombe or Yombe (ISO 639-3: yom) a dialect of the Kongo language of western Central Africa spoken by the Yombe people
Korean language Korean 한국어 한국어 Cambodia
Kuna language
Kurdish Kurdî / كوردی
Latin language Latina
Liberian English language Liberian English language Liberia
Luganda language Luganda
Malay/Indonesian language Bahasa Indonesia
Maithili language Maithili language #Wikipedia - Now in #Maithili -
Mandarin language (Chinese) 中文
Guoyu language (Chinese) 国语
Min language (Chinese) ...

Wu language (Chinese) ...

Cantonese (Yue) language (Chinese) [[ 粵語]]

Jin language (Chinese) ...
Gan language (Chinese) ...
HHakka (Kejia) language (Chinese) ...
Xiang language (Chinese) ...

Marathi language मराठी
Nante Nante Beier, Christine. 2010. The social life and sound patterns of Nanti ways of speaking. University of Texas Ph.D.
Nepali नेपाली Karmacharya, Rabi . 2010. Rabi Karmacharya proudly displaying Nepali teacher workbook. (OLE Nepal has created extensive lesson plans and teaching guides to help Nepali educators empower children's learning, using technology. Note that the emphasis is on education, not technology; OLPC News).
Newar / Nepal Bhasa नेपाल भाषा
Norwegian (Bokmål) Norsk (Bokmål)
Norwegian (Nynorsk) Nynorsk
Persian language فارسی
Polish Polski
Portuguese language Português Moreira, Sara, and Eleanor Staniforth (Translator). 2011. A declaration of love to the Portuguese language, in all its variations. February 23.
Punjabi Punjabi language ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
Romani languages romani - रोमानी
Romanian language Română
Romansh language Rumantsch
Russian language Русский Russian Library:
Sahaptin language Yakama language Washington state, Yakama Nation
Scottish Gaelic language Gàidhlig
Scots language
Sinhala language සිංහල
Slovenian Slovenščina
Somali language Soomaaliga Somalia
Spanish language
Swahili Kiswahili Rwanda
Swedish Svenska
Swedish language Svenska
Tamil language தமிழ்
Telugu language
Thai language ไทย
Tibetan language བོད་སྐད
Tswana Setswana
Turkish language Türkçe
Twi Twi
Ukrainian language Українська
Urdu Urdu language اردو
Vai language Vai Liberia
Vietnamese Vietnamese language Tiếng Việt One Laptop per Child Certificate of Completion.
Welsh Cymraeg
Wu language (Chinese)
Yoruba language Yorùbá
Zapotec languages Zapotec Dizaa Mexico
Zulu language isiZulu
Ido Ido
Afar Afar Ethiopia
Algonquian language Algonquian language Canada
Algonquian languages Algonquian languages North America
Anfillo Anfillo Ethiopia
Awngi Awngi Ethiopia
Esperanto Esperanto
Berta Berta Ethiopia
Bussa Bussa Ethiopia
Burji Burji Ethiopia
Gamo-Gofa Gamo-Gofa Ethiopia
Gurage Gurage Ethiopia
Hadiya Hadiya Ethiopia
Harari Harari Ethiopia
Kĩsêdjê Amazonia
Kambata Kambata Ethiopia
Konso Konso Ethiopia
Luhya Luhya Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
Ongota Ongota Ethiopia
Oromo Oromoo Ethiopia
Saho Saho Ethiopia
Sidama Sidama Ethiopia
Silt'e Silt'e Ethiopia
Soddo Soddo Ethiopia
Tigrinya ትግርኛ Ethiopia
Wolaytta Wolaytta Ethiopia
Xamtanga Xamtanga Ethiopia
Zay Zay Ethiopia
Quechua Runa Simi
Arawakan Languages Arawakan Languages includes Arahuacan, Arawakanas, Arahuacano, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúrean
Haitian Creole (Kreyòl Ayisyen) language Krèyol ayisyen Haitian Krèyol Haiti
Nahuatl Nāhuatl (Mexicano, Mexicanero, Nahuat, Nahual, Melatahtol) Mexico
Yucatec Maya (Maaya t'aan) Yucatec Maya (Maaya t'aan) Mexico
Mixtec (Tu'un sávi) Mixtec (Tu'un sávi) Mexico
Tzeltal Maya (K'op o winik atel) Tzeltal Maya (K'op o winik atel) Mexico
Tzotzil Maya (Batsil k'op) Tzotzil Maya (Batsil k'op)) Mexico
Otomí (Hñä hñü) Otomí (Hñä hñü) Mexico
Totonac (Tachihuiin) Totonac (Tachihuiin) Mexico
Mazatec (Ha shuta enima) Mazatec (Ha shuta enima) Mexico
Ch'ol (Mayan) (Winik) Ch'ol (Mayan) (Winik) Mexico
Huastec (Téenek) Huastec (Téenek) Mexico SJ. 2011. Sugar translation into Téenek (Huastec). October 4. Cambridge, MA:
Chinantec (Tsa jujmí) Chinantec (Tsa jujmí) Mexico
Mixe (Ayüük) Mixe (Ayüük) Mexico
Mazahua (Jñatho) Mazahua (Jñatho) Mexico
Tarascan (P'urhépechas) Tarascan (P'urhépechas) Mexico
Tlapanec (Me'phaa)
Tarahumara (Rarámuri)
Amuzgo (Tzañcue)
Chatino (Cha'cña)
Tojolab'al (Tojolwinik otik)
Popoluca (Zoquean) (Tuncápxe)
Chontal de Tabasco (Yokot t'an)
Huichol (Wixárika)
Mayo (Yoreme)
Tepehuán (O'odham)
Trique (Tinujéi)
Cora (Naáyarite)
Popoloca (Oto-manguean)
Huave (Ikoods)
Cuicatec (Nduudu yu)
Yaqui (Yoreme)
Tepehua (Hamasipini)
Pame (Xigüe)
Mam (Qyool)
Chontal de Oaxaca (Slijuala sihanuk)
Tacuate (Mixtec de Santa María Zacatepec) (Tu'un Va'a)
Chichimeca jonaz (Úza)
Guarijío (Makurawe)
Chocho (Runixa ngiigua)
Pima Bajo (O'odham)
Q'eqchí (Q'eqchí)
Lacandón (Hach t'an)
Jakaltek (Poptí) (Abxubal)
Matlatzinca/Ocuilteco (Tlahuica)
Seri (Cmiique iitom)
Paipai (Akwa'ala)
Cucapá (Es péi)
Mototzintleco (Qatok)
Kumiai (Ti'pai)
Pápago (Tohono O'odham)
Kikapú (Kikapooa)
Cochimí (Laymón, mti'pá)
Kiliwa (Ko'lew)
Dari Dari Afghanistan
Pashto Pashto_language پښتو Afghanistan
Uzbek O‘zbek Afghanistan
Turkmen تركمن / Туркмен Afghanistan
Balochi Balochi_language Afghanistan
Nuristani Nuristani Afghanistan
Pashai Pashai Afghanistan
Brahui Brahui_language Afghanistan
Khalkha Mongolian Khalkha Mongolian Mongolia
Kazakh Қазақша Mongolia Kazakhstan: Controversy Over State Language Promotion -
Tuvan Tuvan Mongolia
Tok Pisin Tok Pisin Papua New Guineau
Hiri Motu Hiri Motu Papua New Guineau
Volapük Volapük
Esperanto Esperanto
Czech Čeština
Slovak Slovenčina
Hungarian Magyar
Hebrew עברית]
Serbian language Serbian Српски_језик Српски / Srpski
Telugu తెలుగు
Galician language Galego language
Cebuano Sinugboanong Binisaya
Malay Bahasa Melayu
Bosnian Bosanski
Bishnupriya Manipuri ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী
Luxembourgish Lëtzebuergesch
Georgian ქართული
Albanian Shqip
Breton Brezhoneg
Azeri language Azərbaycan
Macedonian Македонски
Serbo-Croatian Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски
Tagalog Tagalog
Piedmontese Piemontèis
Latvian Latviešu
Lithuanian language Lietuvių
Sundanese Basa Sunda
Occitan Occitan
Neapolitan Nnapulitano
Low Saxon Plattdüütsch
Sicilian Sicilianu
Belarusian Беларуская
Asturian Asturianu
Walloon Walon
Afrikaans Afrikaans
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa) Беларуская (тарашкевіца)
Aragonese Aragonés
Tajik Тоҷикӣ
Ripuarian Ripoarisch
West Frisian Frysk
Chuvash Чăваш
Venetian Vèneto
Tarantino Tarandíne
Irish Gaeilge
Samogitian Žemaitėška
Maori Māori
Malayalam മലയാളം
Corsican Corsu
Kannada ಕನ್ನಡ
Kapampangan Kapampangan
Yiddish ייִדיש
Upper Sorbian Hornjoserbsce
Interlingua Interlingua
Limburgian Limburgs
Alemannic Alemannisch
Tatar Tatarça / Татарча
Aromanian Armãneashce
Min Nan Bân-lâm-gú
Pangasinan Pangasinan
Banyumasan Basa Banyumasan
Wu 吴语
Faroese Føroyskt
Norman Nouormand/Normaund
West Flemish West-Vlams
Lombard Lumbaart
Dutch Low Saxon Nedersaksisch
Northern Sami Sámegiella
Waray-Waray Winaray
Friulian Furlan
Ligurian Líguru
Novial Novial
Divehi ދިވެހިބަސް
Bihari भोजपुरी
Zazaki Zazaki
Pali पाऴि
Ilokano Ilokano
Ossetian Иронау
Classical Chinese 古文 / 文言文
Maltese Malti
Franco-Provençal/Arpitan Arpitan
Ladino Dzhudezmo
Võro Võro
Pennsylvania German Deitsch
Kashubian Kaszëbsczi
Bavarian Boarisch
Cornish Kernewek/Karnuack
faka Tonga
Монгол хэл | Монгол
Hawaiian Hawai`i
Manx Gaelg
Anglo-Saxon English
Lingala Lingala
Interlingue Interlingue
Tahitian Reo Mā`ohi
Crimean Tatar Qırımtatarca
Wolof Wolof
Lojban Lojban
Saraiki Sardu


Sardinian Sardu
Zealandic Zeêuws
Emilian-Romagnol Emiliàn e rumagnòl
Kirghiz Кыргызча
Oriya ଓଡ଼ିଆ
Malagasy Malagasy
Zamboanga Chavacano Chavacano de Zamboanga
Kongo KiKongo language
Gilaki گیلکی
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܐܪܡܝܐ
Guarani Avañe'ẽ
Moldovan Молдовеняскэ
Kabyle Taqbaylit
Kashmiri कश्मीरी / كشميري
Saterland Frisian Seeltersk
Chechen Нохчийн
Central_Bicolano Bikol
Udmurt Удмурт кыл
Mazandarani مَزِروني
Papiamentu Papiamentu
Old Church Slavonic Словѣньскъ
Sakha Саха тыла
Tetum Tetun
Sindhi Sindhi_language سنڌي، سندھی ، सिन्ध
Lao ລາວ
Bashkir Башҡорт
Nauruan dorerin Naoero
Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺
Lower Sorbian Dolnoserbski
Lushootseed language Salish Washington state, Puget Sound area, Snoqualmie peoples
Cherokee language ᏣᎳᎩ
Min Dong Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄
Hakka Hak-kâ-fa / 客家話
Burmese မ္ရန္မာစာ
Samoan Gagana Samoa
Ewe Eʋegbe
Uyghur Oyghurque
Assamese অসমীয়া
Avar Авар
Bambara language Bamanankan
Navajo Diné bizaad
Cree Nehiyaw
Norfolk Norfuk
Swati SiSwati
Venda Tshivenda
Bislama Bislama
Chamorro Chamoru
Xhosa isiXhosa
Greenlandic Kalaallisut
Inupiak Iñupiak
Buginese Basa Ugi
Tsonga Xitsonga
Komi Коми
Tumbuka chiTumbuka
Kalmyk Хальмг
Sesotho Sesotho
How to Install kasahorow Keyboard for MacOSX African Languages
McWhorter, John. 2010. Speaking Swahili for Kwanzaa? Instead, try learning a tongue that the ancestors of black Americans actually used.
Buryat (Russia) Буряад
Abkhazian Аҧсуа
Chichewa Chi-Chewa
Fijian Na Vosa Vakaviti
Lak Лакку
Kikuyu Gĩkũyũ
Zhuang Cuengh
Bemba Bemba Zambia
Fula Fulfulde
Shona chiShona
Hausa language هَوُسَ Nigeria, Niger +
Sango Sängö
Sichuan Yi ꆇꉙ
Choctaw Choctaw
Kirundi Kirundi
Marshallese Ebon
Cheyenne Tsetsêhestâhese
Ndonga Oshiwambo
Kuanyama Kuanyama
Muscogee Muskogee
Kanuri Kanuri
Herero Otsiherero
Tokipona Tokipona
Kaqchikel Maya
quién sabe
Miskito language: Nicaragua World University and School
Rama language: Nicaragua
Sumo language: Nicaragua
Miskito Coastal Creole language: Nicaragua
Garifuna language: Nicaragua, Honduras
Rama Cay Creole language: Nicaragua
Pawpaw French
Saskatchewan Doukhobor Russian language Saskatchewan Doukhobor Russian language Canada
Diyari language Australia
Pama-Nyungan languages


Add a Language Language Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other


Add a Language Language Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other


Add a Language Language Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other

Human Invented Languages[edit]

Add a Language Language Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other
Elvish, or Sindarin Language (from Tolkien) Elven Word List - Useful Elvish Phrases - The Elvish Dictionary - David Salo's 2004 book "A Gateway to Sindarin: A Grammar of an Elvish Language from J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings" (University of Utah). Middle Earth)
Kesh Kesh (in Ursula Leguin's book "Always Coming Home")
Klingon language
Na´vi - (from the film - "Avatar")
Invented language

Extinct Languages[edit]

Add a Language Language Language code Language status Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other
Cromarty dialect of Scots language Language code Extinct See: See, too:
Extinct language

Free Language Learning[edit]

Add a Language Language Written form Spoken Universal Translator Google Translate As Wikipedia Language Other Translator Other Info Tags Other
Avatar Language Learning in Second Life non-credit Second Life The 3D virtual world "Second Life" is full of places to practice a foreign language using 'voice,' and it's free. Many
Chinese I (Regular) non-credit MIT Dr. Julian K. Wheatley Undergraduate, Graduate
German Language Class and non-credit Second Life Free German language class in Second Life from the Goethe Institute. Meets on Tuesdays from 7-8 am Pacific Time. German
Greek - Learn Greek non-credit Browser, Audio Player Learn Greek Online is currently composed of 105 real audio files (around 15 minutes each), online student notes, a collection of collaborative learning tools and an online greek dictionary and a greek spell checker - free of charge. Greek
Japanese Free Lessons non-credit Browser Learn how to speak, read, and write the Japanese language, including the Japanese alphabet (Hiragana and Katakana) as well as Kanji, Japanese grammar, Japanese sentence structure, and common Japanese phrases. Japanese
Japanese Online non-credit Browser Free learning services to people who wish to study the Japanese language; Way for Japanese learners to find and talk to one another, as well as seek language exchange relationships with Japanese speakers. Japanese speakers seeking language exchange partners are also welcome. Japanese
Learn Japanese Adventure non-credit Browser One personal experiences on how to learn Japanese language. Learn how to speak and write Japanese online with free lessons. Increase your Japanese words, phrases and vocabulary. Japanese

WUaS Idea- and Academic Resources[edit]


Language Code[edit]

Language code (ISO 639):

Ethnologue page:

Language status:

BCP 47 - Tags for Identifying Languages - IETF Tools

Ethnologue - (Ethnologue now uses ISO 639 codes)

Glottolog Languages (Showing 1 to 100 of 7,870 entries) -

IANA language subtag registry

ISO 639 (International Organization for Standardization)


ISO-639-6 (This aims to include any and all language variants and it is not that interested in using the political term what language has become).

Language Subtag Lookup (A nice tool maintained by W3C corroborator Richard Ishida to look up current IANA defined language tags, and their constituents (subtags)).

Publish my article in a WUaS academic journal in this subject[edit]

Open Journal Systems. 2012. Open Journal Systems. Public Knowledge Project.

(WUaS's wiki, information technologies and criteria for this - informed by the WUaS academic journal subject matter - are developing, since you can already publish your article at

Select Bibliographies[edit]

Select Blogs, Blog Aggregators[edit]

Ethnoblog. 2013. Ethnoblog. (The Ethnoblog is a place where the Ethnologue Editor and others talk about language in general, items in the news regarding language and languages, and developments, products, and projects being worked on by the Ethnologue staff (and others). Dallas, TX:

Select Book Groups, Study Groups, Musical Groups, etc.[edit]

Begin a Google + Hangout:


Select Book Reviews[edit]

Select Books, eBooks[edit]

Add an ISBN.

Allee, Verna. 2011. Value Networks and the true nature of collaboration. (Why a free live digital edition? This book is being provided as a live digital edition for two reasons: 1) It can be instantly translated into any of the 52 languages supported by Google Translate, and 2) It will allow continuous updating and additions of cases and examples provided by users of this approach. We are publishing the details of conducting a Value Network Analysis (VNA) as a non-proprietary methodology. This means it can more readily meet the open method requirements of standards bodies. We encourage adoption of the method in its full integrity - as a method and framework for business modeling. ). .

Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. (The Ethnologue is a list of 7,105 known living languages, as a main basis for WUaS Languages and Universal Translator). Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.

UNESCO. 2012. UNESCO book on multilingualism in cyberspace. June 20. ( Paris, France:

Select Channels[edit]

Select Communities, Email lists, etc.[edit]

Listing of all the public emailing lists at Wikimedia:

(See also editable World University and School's 'You at World University' page:

Select Conference Materials[edit]

Select Conferences Online[edit]

Select Databases[edit]

Select Dictionaries[edit]

Select Encyclopedias[edit]

Select Facts[edit]

Select Films[edit]

Select Film Reviews[edit]

Select Forums, Spaces, etc.[edit]

Select Funding Sources[edit]

Google + Hangouts, Group Video, etc.[edit]

Language Practice Hangouts. 2015. Language Practice Hangouts - Multi-lingual. Argentina: .

Select Humor[edit]

Select Idea Competitions / Conversations / Dialogues[edit]

Language Practice Hangouts. 2014. Language Practice Hangouts.

Language Practice Hangouts. 2014. Language Practice Hangouts.

Select Images, Infographics, etc.[edit]

Select Institutes, etc.[edit]

Select Interviews[edit]

Select Journals, Serials, etc.[edit]

Current Issues in Language Planning. 2011. Current Issues in Language Planning. (The journal Current Issues in Language Planning provides major summative and thematic review studies spanning and focusing the disparate language policy and language planning literature related to: 1) polities and language planning and 2) issues in language planning.). Routledge.

Select Labs[edit]

Select Lectures[edit]

Select Libraries, Archives, Collections, etc.[edit]

(See also editable World University and School's Library Resources' page:

Select Maps[edit]

Harrison, K. David. 2011. Language Hot Spots. Washington DC: National Geographic.

Select Multimedia[edit]

Select Museums[edit]

(See also editable World University and School's Museums' page:

Select Newspapers, News[edit]

Select Office Hours[edit]

Select Photos[edit]

Select Platforms[edit]

edx-platform. 2014. edx-platform: the edX learning management system (LMS) and course authoring tool]. (edx-platform the edX learning management system (LMS) and course authoring tool, Studio —

Select Programs, Applications, Languages, Software[edit]

Babelfy. 2014. Babelfy. (Babelfy is a unified, multilingual, graph-based approach to Entity Linking and Word Sense Disambiguation based on a loose identification of candidate meanings coupled with a densest subgraph heuristic which selects high-coherence semantic interpretations). .

BabelNet. 2014. BabelNet. (BabelNet is both a multilingual encyclopedic dictionary, with lexicographic and encyclopedic coverage of terms in 50 languages, and a semantic network which connects concepts and named entities in a very large network of semantic relations, made up of more than 9 million entries). .

IBM Watson Developer Cloud. 2015. IBM Watson Developer Cloud. Armonk, NY: .

Select Questions, Inquiries, Problems[edit]

Select Quotes, Quotations, etc.[edit]

Select RSS Feeds[edit]

Select Recordings[edit]

Select References[edit]

Amos, Jonathan. 2012. Digital tools 'to save languages'. Vancouver, Canada: BBC News.

Ava. 2011. How to Succeed in Foreign Language Without Really Trying. Stanford, CA: .

Content translation. 2015. Content translation. .

Crotty, James. 2012. Amara's Wiki-Style Translation Platform Enables Global Growth Of Education Startups. August 31.

Darnton, Robert. 2014. A World Digital Library Is Coming True!. May 22. New York, NY: The New York Times.

Dunham, Elizabeth. 2011. An Alaska native who lives in Portland battles cancer while working to save a tribe's language. April 13. Portland, OR: Oregon Live.

Eamer, Allyson. 2014. How Technology Is Helping People Learn—and Even Save—the World's Languages. July 3. Cambridge, MA: .

The Endangered Languages Project. 2012. The Endangered Languages Project: Supporting language preservation through technology and collaboration.

Ethnologue. 2014. Ethnologue. Princeton, NJ: .

For winners of UN essay contest, multilingualism makes the world go ‘round. 2014. For winners of UN essay contest, multilingualism makes the world go ‘round. New York, NY: .

Góes, Paula. 2012. Global: A Marathon to Translate the Declaration of Internet Freedom. July 26. Cambridge, MA: Global Voices Online.

Graham, Mark (and Jon Hughes?). 2014. Geotagging Reveals Wikipedia Is Not Quite So Equal After All. London, UK: .

Green, Cable. 2012. World OER Map: Will You Help Build It?. November 9th. San Francisco, CA:

Harrison, K. David. 2011. Disappearing Languages: Enduring Voices Project, Endangered Languages, Map, Facts, Photos .... Washington DC: National Geographic.

Harrison, K. David. 2011. Global Language HotSpots. Swarthmore, PA: Swarthmore College.

Knowles, Jamillah. 2011. Global Voices Podcast: Bridging the Language Gaps. November 21.

Language Information. 2014. Language Information. .

Lardinois, Frederic. 2013. Google Launches Sign Language Interpreter App For Hangouts, Adds Accessibility Features To Gmail, Drive And Chrome. March 1.

Lewis, Paul. 2011. Ethnologue: Languages of the World - Statistical Summaries. (16th edition). Dallas, TX:

MacLeod, Scott. 2014. Black Oystercatcher - Haematopus bachmani: New "Clinical Trials at WUaS (for all languages)" at WUaS, Examples of "Living," "Extinct" and "Invented" languages at WUaS,"Scottish Gaelic language", "Cromarty dialect of Scots language", "Elvish, or Sindarin language (from Tolkien)", WUaS Universal Translator ... along with the main "Languages" and the new "LANGUAGE TEMPLATE" with which you can begin a new language, and related school or MIT OCW-centric University at WUaS … New subjects at WUaS this month ... WUaS monthly business meeting meets tomorrow, Saturday, May 10, 2014, electronically in Free Conference Call this month, and all are welcome. May 9.

MacLeod, Scott. 2015. Camellia sasanqua: 9,000 Languages and their Countries in a spreadsheet is an amazing WUaS development because each of these languages, in this list, will become an open editable wiki school in that language and the larger languages will become accrediting universities in their nation states and also the basis for an Universal Translator, Suggestions for adding their populations of native speakers to this list?. March 13.

MacLeod, Scott. 2014. Mountain sagewort: think of the 12 main links ... Languages, Countries, Applications to WUaS ... Music School ... Research ... in the table on this page as a kind of HOBBIT HOLE from JRR Tolkien ... at ... ... "Gandalf in the meantime was still standing outside the door ... ," The portal is made ..., The possibility of a WUaS universal translator, which will include human invented languages, such as the Elvish language, called Sindarin, created by Tolkien, for example, in addition to the 7,105 languages listed in the "The Ethnologue" and because WUaS is wiki, Some Elvish language, or Sindarin language, resources. April 10. .

MacLeod, Scott. 2015. native flax seed plants: Very Cool - A Guidebook and a Test, for A.I. and machine learning at WUaS, Translatable, in an Universal Translator, Textbooks/Guidebooks as Courses, Think the California Drivers' Manual and Related Test, or The New Testament and Quizzes - with a focus on Love - in 1,300+ of the largest languages in the world out of 7,870, 10K and 2K Reward ISSIP WUaS Grand Challenges, Clinical Trials in All Languages, Scottish Gaelic is unintelligible in Google Translate and probably has fewer than 100,000 speakers for an Universal Translator of the largest languages, How the New Testament teaches love, Tests for the New Testament, as beginning examples for coding for machine learning and AI for an Universal Translator, A wee breakthrough, How to code AI, Guidebooks and Tests for flourishing learning enjoyment?. February 25. San Francisco, CA: .

MacLeod, Scott. 2015. Red Macaw: Zapotec, The Bible/New Testament as a basis for the WUaS Universal Translator, WUaS Business Plan. March 5. .

MCGONEGAL, JOE. 2014. Coding Towards Vietnam: edX in Translation. Cambridge, MA: .

Mieszkowski, Jan. Ich, Ach, Auch: Certain Also-Ran Languages of Jacques Derrida. Cambridge, MA:

Moro, Andrea, Alessandro Raganato and Roberto Navigli. 2014. Entity Linking meets Word Sense Disambiguation: A Unified Approach. (TACL), 2. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics.

Parra, Juliana Rincón. 2011. Video: Learning a New Language Through Online Video. February 22. (Aymara, Swahili, Quechua, KhoeKhoegowab, Welsh, Bangla).Cambrdige, MA: Global Voices Online.

phobos. 2011. Whither website translations. September 28.

The Problem of Language Identification. 2014. The Problem of Language Identification. .

Power, Brian. 2015. 8 Great Language Learning Tools You Haven’t Heard Of. .

redletterdave. 2012. Google Launches Endangered Languages Project. June 21.

Roberts, Sam. 2010. [Listening to (and Saving) the World’s Languages]. April 28. New York, NY: The New York Times.

Sarhadi, Atefeh. 2012. Ver.2 of OP (Old Persian) Fonts: Unicode & Ultra-Unicode. Linking standard OP transliteration to the original OP text. San Francisco, CA:

Sittig, Helen. 2011. Who wants to lose their mother tongue?. February, 22. Amsterdam, NL: Radio Netherlands Worldwide.

Sookmyung Women's University’s SNOW Launches OCW Translations. 2012. Sookmyung Women's University’s SNOW Launches OCW Translations. ("SNOW joins Universia (Spanish, Portuguese), China Open Resources for Education (Simplified Chinese), Opensource Opencourseware Prototype System (Traditional Chinese), Chulalongkorn University (Thai), The Turkish Academy of Sciences (Turkish) and Shahid Beheshti University (Persian) as MIT OpenCourseWare translation affiliates. Together these organizations have created more than 1,000 translations of OCW courses. These translations have received more than 135 million visits to date, accounting for roughly 40% of worldwide access to MIT OpenCourseWare content."). Cambridge, MA:

Soulskill. 2011. How Technology Is Shaping Language. November 21.

Stian. 2010. P2PU in 24 different languages!.

Timothy. 2011. Device Addresses Healthcare Language Barrier. February 26.

Vold Lexander, Kristin. 2011. Names U ma puce: multilingual texting in Senegal. (Working paper presented to the Media Anthropology Network e-seminar. European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA) 17-31 May 2011 - University of Oslo.

Whitty, Julia. 2012. Languages Decline as Species Disappear. May 14. San Francisco, CA: Mother Jones.

Zuckerman, Ethan. 2008. The Polyglot Internet. Cambridge, MA:

Select Search Engines[edit]

Select Simulations, Applets and Visualizations[edit]

Select Slideshows[edit]

Select Societies, Associations, Groups, Networks, etc.[edit]

Select Study Guides[edit]

Select Syllabi[edit]

Select Teachers with Email Addresses/Contact Information[edit]

Select Tests, Exams, etc.[edit]

Select Textbooks[edit]

Select Theses, Dissertations, Papers, etc.[edit]

Select Timelines[edit]

Select Twitters[edit]

Avila, Eddie. 2014. Tweet in Your Mother Language on February 21. February 17. Cambridge, MA:

MacLeod, Scott GK. 2023.

Love it: And why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings & what is #TheHobbit's #MoralityWUaS? GREAT:"Polarity of #Morality and the Lord of the Rings: What is Evil?"#Allegory #ReedCollege #JuniorQualifyingExam on #Theodicy @AimeTim @WorldUnivAndSch~

Love it: And why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings? What is #TheHobbit's #MoralityWUaS? Great:"Polarity of #Morality and the Lord of the Rings: What is Evil?"#WUaSAllegory #GoodAndEvil #ReedCollege #JuniorQualifyingExam on #Theodicy @AimeTimTo,_or_Sindarin_Language_(from_Tolkien) @WorldUnivAndSch 

Thnks @HelloFutureMe


LANGUAGE? Why do people like#JRRTolkien's writings?,_or_Sindarin_Language_(from_Tolkien)? @WorldUnivAndSch #WUaSinventedLanguages #WUaSLanguages All, Ever, incl. 7168 #WUaSKnownLivingLanguages & extinct ones like #GreenlandicNorse as #LLMs +

LANGUAGE? Why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings? to,_or_Sindarin_Language_(from_Tolkien) @WorldUnivAndSch for #WUaSinventedLanguages #WUaSLanguages All Ever incl. 7168 #WUaSKnownLivingLanguages & extinct ones like GreenlandicNorse as #LLMs +

  1. WUaSSumerian

Language it? Why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings? to,_or_Sindarin_Language_(from_Tolkien) @WorldUnivAndSch for #WUaSinventedLanguages #WUaSLanguages All Ever incl. 7168 #WUaSKnownLivingLanguages & extinct ones like #WUaSSumerian as #LLMs +

  • Latin isn't extinct 

Language it? Why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings? to,_or_Sindarin_Language_(from_Tolkien) @WorldUnivAndSch for #WUaSinventedLanguages #WUaSLanguages All Ever incl. 7168 #WUaSKnownLivingLanguages & extinct ones like #WUaSLatin as #LLMs +

  • Love it: And why do people love#JRRTolkien's writings & what is #TheHobbit's #MoralityWUaS? GREAT:"Polarity of #Morality and the Lord of the Rings: What is Evil?"#Allegory #ReedCollege #JuniorQualifyingExam on #Theodicy @AimeTim @WorldUnivAndSch~

Thnks @HelloFutureMe


Pittsburgh, PA:

MacLeod, Scott GK. 2023.

Russian courses' website logo -

@sgkmacleod (Languages @WorldUnivAndSch - all 7151) Someone #WikiAdded "Каталог онлайн-курсов" (Catalog of online courses) - - in Russian > where wiki Russian #WUaScourses would be best

WUaS logo - @sgkmacleod (Languages @WorldUnivAndSch - all 7151) Someone #WikiAdded "Каталог онлайн-курсов" (Catalog of online courses) - - in Russian > where wiki Russian #WUaScourses would be best

Select Video and Audio[edit]

Clayton, Steve. 2012. Microsoft Research shows a promising new breakthrough in speech translation technology. Redmond, WA:

Finn, Amy S., Taraz Lee, Allison Kraus, Carla L. Hudson Kam. 2014. When It Hurts (and Helps) to Try: The Role of Effort in Language Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Lazar, Jonathan. 2011. Preventing Societal Discrimination: Accessible Web Design for People with Disabilities. Cambridge, MA: Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University.

Lee, Reena Singhal, and ? (interviewer). 2013. CS4HS with Reena Lee. December 11. (This video is private, however). Mountain View, CA:

MCCLELAND, JACOB. 2014. Saving A French Dialect That Once Echoed In The Ozarks. September 23. NPR.

Parra, Juliana Rincón. 2011. Video: Learning a New Language Through Online Video. February 22. Global Voices Online.

Powell, Will. 2012. Project Glass: Translation...inspired - subtitles in glasses (English Spanish conversation). (inspired by google's project glass I put together an application that can provide translated subtitles in real time. It allows me and my sister Elizabeth to have a conversation when I speak English and she speaks Spanish).

Quinn, Conor. 2012. Hacking Language Learning: Dr. Conor Quinn at TEDxDirigo. TEDxDirigo.

ShaoLan. 2013. Learn to read Chinese ... with ease!. (Subtitles available in 48 languages). .

Smith, Dave. 2012. Google Launches Endangered Languages Project To Preserve Global Speech, Culture (VIDEO). International Business Times.

Truseneye92. 2010. The English Language In 24 Accents. channel.

Van Deusen-Scholl, Nelleke. 2014. Yale Center for Language Study Shared Course Initiative. (At the Online Education Open Forum held on February 24, 2014, Nelleke Van Deusen-School, Director of the Center for Language Study, shared the collaborative arrangement with Cornell and Columbia to share less commonly taught languages, offer several languages that are not otherwise taught on our campuses, via videoconferencing from a partner institution in the CLS Shared Course Initiative). New Haven, CT: Yale University.

Zanuttini, Raffaella. 2013. social: linguistic pride for grammatical diversity. New Haven, CT: YaleCampus Youtube channel.

Select Video Conferences[edit]

Select Video with Subtitles for Translation[edit]

Select Videocasts and Podcasts[edit]

Select Websites[edit]

Amara Translation. 2013. Amara Translation. New York, NY:

Duolingo. 2013. Duolingo: Free language education for the world.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. Glottolog 2.3. (Available online at, Accessed on 2015-01-12. Lists 7,870 languages currently. Glottolog is an initiative of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Languages and Multilingualism. 2012. Languages and Multilingualism.

MIT OpenCourseware. 2012. MIT OpenCourseware. Cambridge, MA:

Meedan. 2013. Meedan. (Meedan’s mission is to forward cross-cultural understanding and collaboration by providing people, partners and communities with advanced technologies to exchange ideas, information and knowledge across languages, focusing primarily on English and Arabic). San Francisco, CA:

Mitchell, Ryan and Yuki Yamada. 2013. [ Wikipedia Edits Around the Globe: The Where and When of Language]. (In multiple languages). Cambridge, MA:

One Laptop per Child Translate. 2012.

World Oral Literature Project. 2012. [ World Oral Literature Project - voices of vanishing worlds]. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Select Wikidata Queries[edit]

Select Wikis[edit]

WIL: Wiki for Indigenous Languages. 2013. WIL: Wiki for Indigenous Languages. (Indigenous Language Revitalization Links; see, too David Shorter's Center for Digital Humanities' UCLA web page - Los Angeles, CA: .

WikiBase (

WikiData (

Select Workshops[edit]

Select Writers, Researchers, etc.[edit]

Subjects' Social Networking Sites[edit]


Wikimedia Commons[edit]

Wikimedia Commons:









World University and School Links[edit]

African languages:

Artificial Intelligence:

Assistive Technologies:

English as a Second Language:

European languages:

Foreign Languages and Literatures:

Indigenous languages of the Americas:



Languages of China:

Languages of India:


Native American Languages:

Papuan languages:

Translators at WUaS:

United Nations:

Voice and Computing:

WUaS Universal Translator:

WUaS Navigation[edit]

Academic Advising at WUaS[edit]

Academic Press at World University and School[edit]

Academic Press at World University and School:

Access to Live, or Email, University Technical Expertise[edit]

Ask a question in a specific discipline, or find, for example, a Robotics' or Computer programmer, or Translator, easily and freely.

Additional Categories[edit]

Admissions at World University and School[edit]

Admissions' Department: h

Flyer seeking degree-oriented, WUaS students: 'Quaker-informed World University & School seeks friendly, undergraduate students for free, online, Greatest Universities-centric, bachelor’s degrees to apply in the autumn of 2013, for matriculation in autumn 2014' - - and accessible here, also - WUaS holds open, electronically-mediated, hour-long, monthly business meeting on the second Saturdays at 9 am Pacific Time, in the manner of Quakers - email if you'd like to participate.

Assistive Technologies[edit]

WUaS plans to anticipate numerous developing assistive technologies for sight-impaired, hearing-impaired, and similar -

Assistive Technologies: h

Blog at World University and School[edit]

Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at World University and School[edit]

Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at WUaS:

with educational electronics, as well; with musical instruments; value pricing ... 2% below market, consistently; available via mail and electronically;

Bulletin Board (like University Bulletin Boards for Students)[edit]

to post things you have for sale, or announcements

Calendar (Schedule what you'd like to teach)[edit]


Join the World University and School Google + Group to add to its wiki-like calendar to teach an open, free class or course, converse about ideas, and jam (e.g. musically or theater improvisation): .


Career counseling:

Finding / creating a job you really love:

WUaS Job hunting:




Geodetic datums such as WGS84 or GPS

Geohash keys

... in a virtual world


Many thanks to each of you!

Please feel free to hyperlink your name to a location of your choice (or tell WUaS where to link to - Please do not hesitate to let WUaS know if you think that somebody (including yourself) has been forgotten, now or in the future; please include a URL, which is, of course, one main way identity created on the internet.

Digital and Print course catalog[edit]

Digital course catalog

Digital To Do[edit]


Brainwave device / Headset

Broadcast to radio frequencies

Broadcast to TV / television

Create EMail group for page

Digital Text to Audio file format (Browse Aloud / Read Aloud?)

Google Glass

OCW Mirror Site Instructions:

Oculus Rift


Publish to DVD


Send to phone




Free Degrees / Credit[edit]

OCW Audio Video Courses:

Admissions at World University and School:

Conference Method of Teaching and Learning:

The College at World University and School:

Ph.D. Degrees at World University and School:

World University Law School:

World University Medical School:

World University Music School:

WUaS International Baccalaureate Diploma and Programme:
(beginning with United Nations' languages - Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, (German too), Russian, Spanish)

In Google Earth[edit]

Google Earth.

In Virtual World[edit]

(Search on the word 'lists' here, too:

Active Worlds Educational Universe (AWEDU). 2012.

Alice. 2012.

Minecraft. 2012.

Edusim. 2013.

Gifted 2013.

Google Street View. 2017.

Kaneva. 2014.

Open Cobalt. 2013.

OpenSim. 2012. (

Open Croquet. 2012. and

Open Wonderland. 2012.

Primary Games. 2013.

Quest Atlantis. 2012. (

Second Life - Harvard's virtual island. 2012. - and teach, learn and share ideas - in group voice chat, or in group type chat, and via building.

SmallWorlds. 2014. 2014.

Twinity. 2014.

Unity3D. 2012.

WiloStar3D. 2013.

World of Warcraft in School. 2014.

Add a learning-oriented virtual world here:

Travel to this virtual island to learn building:

Item Number[edit]

Global ID and Multiple IDs - see

Bar code


Learning Networking[edit]

Teach and Learn using free Social Networking software to share what courses, etc., you find edifying, what you enjoy learning ....

About Me - World University and School -'s World University and School -'s World University and School - ('This group may be archived').

Good Reads -

Google + Profiles - - Scott MacLeod -

Google + Profiles Company page - - World University and School -

Google Groups' World University and School -


LinkedIn's World University and School -

Quora -

Research Gate -'s World University and School -'s World University and School -'s World University and School -

Wer Kennt Wen - World University and School -

World University & School 'subject page' group

World University & School Share This

Yahoo Groups' World University and School:

Linked Open Data[edit]

Linked Open Data, Linked Data for artificial intelligence and machine learning, with a focus on privacy and security.

List of Wikipedias[edit]

List of Wikipedias. 2015. List of Wikipedias. .

RSS Feed[edit]

Save this page for download in the following formats[edit]









TV-Live Broadcasting[edit]

Broadcast to television

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software to the web:

Google Meets -

Justin TV -

Livestream TV -

UnHangouts -

Ustream TV -

Video Communication[edit]

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software

Free video conferencing

iChat -

Skype -

Free, group video conferencing

AnyMeeting -

Google Meet -

Meeting Burner - – up to 15 connection

ooVoo -

Paltalk -

sifonr - free communication -‎

Tokbox | OpenTok - API -

Vyew -

Web Huddle - - - Cloud HD Video Meetings -

Universal Translator at WUaS[edit]

Google Translate language:

Sugar Labs: Translation System language:


Select Translators

Babelxl. 2015. Babelxl: the best translator. .

Babylon Online Translation. 2015. Babylon Online Translation. (Offering hundreds of dictionaries and translation in more than 800 language pairs). . 2015. .

Google Translate. 2015. Google Translate. .

SDL Free Translation. 2015. SDL Free Translation. .

Word Lingo Free Translation Tools. 2015. Word Lingo Free Translation Tools and Machine Translation Products. .

Select Video with Subtitles for Translation 2015. Captions, subtitles, and translations simplified. (Amara makes video globally accessible: Captions, subtitles, and translations simplified).

TED Open Translation Project. 2015. TED Open Translation Project. (See - - and - .

The "Universitian" Newspaper at World University and School[edit]

The "Universitian" Newspaper at WUaS

Wiki Software for Courses[edit]

Media Wiki -

PB Works -

Wet Paint -

Wikia -

Wikispaces -

Wikidata / Bots[edit]

World University and School Accreditation[edit]

World University and School Licensing[edit]

World University and School - like Wikipedia with Greatest Universities' OpenCourseWare - incorporated as a nonprofit effective April 2010 and is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt, educational organization charity.

World University & School is a community of learners and teachers who value — and are themselves strengthened by — the rich diversity of its participants. In order to cultivate a flourishing teaching, learning and creating conversation in a diverse and complex world, WUaS welcomes all languages, students, families, faculty, board members, and staff with differences based on (but not limited to) race, color, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, family structure, and economic background.

All content on this site is freely available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) - .

World University and School Main Areas[edit]

Admissions' Department:
Library Resources:
Nation States:
You at World University:
Educational Software:
Hardware Resource Possibilities:
Frequently Asked Questions at World University & School:
World University Foundation:

Templates at World University and School[edit]


Volunteers at World University and School:

For questions, or help editing a page, email:

WUaS's listing - .

Please donate through PayPal to tax-exempt - 501 (c) (3) - World University and School at
Thank you!