Tourism Studies

From World University and School Wiki

World University and School {in a virtual world}

Welcome to World University and School Wiki
which anyone can add to or edit.
The Global, Virtual/Digital, Open, Free, {potentially Degree- and Credit-Granting},
Multilingual University & School
where anyone can teach or take a class or course

  • Add or take a free, open Tourism Studies course.

Tourism Studies[edit]

  • Add free, open Tourism Studies subjects below.


Add free, open Tourism Studies subjects Web Site Organization (if any) Degree / Non-degree Instructor's Name Location Other Info Language Tags
Course's Name http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Course's Name http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

WUaS Idea- and Academic Resources[edit]


This WUaS Tourism Studies' subject focuses more on explaining how and why Tourism is a mass phenomenon, social scientifically, than WUaS's Hospitality and Tourism Studies' subject, which focuses on pragmatic and financial questions of the Tourism Industry ...

Publish my article in a WUaS academic journal in this subject[edit]

Open Journal Systems. 2012. Open Journal Systems. Public Knowledge Project.

(WUaS's wiki, information technologies and criteria for this - informed by the WUaS academic journal subject matter - are developing, since you can already publish your article at

Select Bibliographies[edit]

Select Blogs[edit]

Select Book Groups, Study Groups, Musical Groups, etc.[edit]

Begin a Google + Hangout:


Select Book Reviews[edit]

Adams, Kathleen. 2014. Review of Picard's _Tourism, Magic and Modernity_ (2014 American Ethnologist 41(3):594-595). .

Select Books[edit]

Add an ISBN.

Ateljevic, J. and Page, S.J. 2009. Tourism and Entrepreneurship. Butterworth Heinemann.

Byron, Robert, and Paul Fussell (Introduction), Rory Stewart (Foreword). 1937. The Road to Oxiana. ( Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Coleman, Simon and Mike Crang. 2002. Tourism: between place and performance. Berghahn Books.

Cooper, C. and Hall, M. 2008. Contemporary Tourism. Butterworth Heinemann.

Daher, Rami (ed.). 2010. Tourism in the Middle East: Continuity, Change and Transformation. (Tourism and Cultural Change Series). Sheffield, England: Channel View Publications.

Dennison Nash (ed.). 2007. The Study of Tourism: Anthropological and Sociological Beginnings. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. and Cooper, M. 2009. Health and Wellness Tourism. Channel View.

Fussell, Paul. 1982. Abroad: British Literary Traveling between the Wars. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

George, E.W., Mair, H. and Reid, D.G. 2009. Rural Tourism Development. Channel View.

Gmelch, Sharan Bohn. 2010. Tourists and Tourism: A Reader. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Graburn, Nelson, H. H. (ed.). 1976. Ethnic and Tourist Arts: Cultural Expressions from the Fourth World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Jamal, Tazim and Mike Robinson (eds.). 2009. The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

Knudsen, Britta Timm, and Anne Marit Waade (eds.). 2010. Re-Investing Authenticity: Tourism, Place and Emotions (Tourism and Cultural Change series). Sheffield, England: Channel View Publications.

Lew, A., Hall, C.M. and Timothy, D. 2008. World Geography of Travel and Tourism.

MacCannell, Dean. 2011. The Ethics of Sightseeing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

MacCannell, Dean, with Lucy Lippard (introduction). 1999. [The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class]. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

MacLeod, Donald, James G. Carrier (eds.). 2010. Tourism Power and Culture: Anthropological Insights. (Tourism and Cultural Change series). Sheffield, England: Channel View Publications.

McWatters, M.R. 2008. Residential Tourism. (Tourism and Cultural Change series). Sheffield, England: Channel View Publications.

Salazar, Noel B. 2010. Envisioning Eden: Mobilizing Imaginaries in Tourism and Beyond. (Vol. 31, New Directions in Anthropology). Berghahn Books.

Salazar, Noel B. 2012. Tourism imaginaries: A conceptual approach. Leuven, Belgium:

Scott, Noel and Jafar Jafari (eds.). 2010. Tourism in the Muslim World (Volume 2 of /Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

Smith, Valene L. 1989. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Smith, Valene L. and Maryann Brent (eds.). 2001. Hosts and Guest Revisited: Tourism Issues in the 21st Century. Elmsford, NY: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Tribe, J. 2009. Philosophical Issues in Tourism. Channel View.

Urban, Greg. 2001. Metaculture: How Culture Moves through the World. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Winter, Tim, Peggy Teo and T.C. Chang (eds.). 2009. Asia on Tour: Exploring the Rise of Asian Tourism. London, England: Routledge.

Yeoman, I. 2008. Tomorrow's Tourist. Butterworth Heinemann.

'Select Chapters'

Select Calendars for Events in this Subject[edit]

Select Call for Papers, Chapters, Submissions, etc.[edit]

Trans-Atlantic Dialogues on Cultural Heritage: Heritage, Tourism and Traditions. 2014. International Conference: Trans-Atlantic Dialogues on Cultural Heritage: Heritage, Tourism and Traditions, 13-16 July 2015, Liverpool, UK. Liverpool, UK: .

Select Channels[edit]

Select Communities, Email lists, etc.[edit]

(See also editable World University and School's 'You at World University' page:

Select Conference Materials[edit]

Tourism and Eroticism/Sexuality

From Jean-Francois STASZAK: 3 February 2014 "Dear Nelson, About the title. In our view, the title of the conference has not yet been discussed, and it could be one of the issues of our meeting Thursday. We have a problem with the word "eroticism" for two reasons. First, it may describe the experience of the tourist, but seems less relevant to describe the experience of the sex worker. Using this word sounds like being on the side of the tourist (vs. the sex worker). Second, but it's maybe more a problem in French than in English, the connotations of the word eroticism refer to some kind of bourgeois fin-de-siècle sophisticated arty atmosphere (Moulin rouge, Emanuelle, etc. ), which is a problem if we want to be less prudish and talk as well about sex tourism, pornography, etc. We do not want the conference to be just about sex tourism, but we don't either want to exclude papers about sex tourism. "Tourism and sexuality" seemed to us broader and more neutral than "Tourism and eroticism". It doesn't mean that eroticism is not a interesting topic, but I would say it's not the only one.

I would of course be more than happy to have a look on the materials you have collected before we meet.


Jean-François Staszak _________________________________________________________

4 Feb 2014 Dear Jean-Francois and Estelle,

   Thank you for your information about the title - I think we understand more now.

I am sending you a lot of correspondence and input from people from all over, some just paper or topic titles, but many of them long and considered ideas for the intellectual organization of the conference. I have two apologies: First, I am sorry that I have been unable to upload these materials as a single attachment...for some reason they won't 'save.' That is why this reply is a bit late. Secondly, and perhaps because of a faulty computer, there is quite an extensive bibliography that I was not able to include.

  If I recover those materials I will forward them to everyone.

Nelson Graburn, for TSWG

PS> My apologies for those who already have (most of) these voluminous documents.

On Tue, Feb 4, 2014 at 12:21 PM, Nelson H. GRABURN <> wrote:

From: Nelson Graburn, for TSWG

Tourism and Eroticism/Sexuality Conference: Correspondence 4 February 2014

Suggestions and Input: For planning meeting on January 24th.

Conference Parameters

Maria Gravari-Barbas:

Tout ceci me va vraiment très bien.

-Peut-on organiser en fonction

-Des destinations :

- les destinations romantiques (Venise, etc.)

- les destinations du tourisme sexuel (aussi bien les sexscapes du Tiers-monde que Paris ou Amsterdam)

- les quartiers rouges (cabarets à Paris, le quartier rouge à Amsterdam, Patpong...)

- l'érotisme du voyage (le train, l'avion, etc.)

- les sex resorts

- y a-t-il des paysages érotiques ?

-la dimension genrée des destinations touristiques

- des pratiques touristiques :

- rencontrer l'alter ego dans les clubs de vacances, la drague entre touristes, etc.

- tourisme et érotisation/libération (sexuelle) du corps et de l'esprit

- la sexualité des couples de touristes

- les "visites" érotiques

- Les acteurs et les « intermédiaires »

- l'érotisme dans le marketing touristique

- le développement de produits touristiques (Mykonos, croisières, etc.) sexuellement ciblé (homo)

-Imaginaires et représentations

- le tourisme dans le cinéma pornographique

- érotisation et exotisation

J-F Staszak and E Sohier. (translated by Bert Gordon)


International Conference, Geneva, June 2015

This conference seeks to explore the sexual aspects of the practices, destinations, actors, and tourist imaginaries in all their dimensions. The conference does not favor any approach, any place, or any discipline. It seeks to explore the intersections of sexuality and tourism in all their aspects -- especially those that have been rarely explored before. The conference is based on the fact that previous work focused on the question of sex tourism while neglecting a more in-depth consideration of the ideas, practices, places, the actors and networks, the imaginaries and the ethics in which the intersection of sex and tourism is located.

The following directions are suggested but they are not exclusive:

1. DEFITIONS: How does one approach the question of the relationships between sex and tourism?

The literature on the relationship between sex and tourism are centered on "sex tourism," defined as leisure travel seeking paid sexual relations (Oppermann, 1999).* This expression implies that there is nothing sexual in other types of tourism, and that "sex tourism" is limited to prostitution, which is false or reductionist. One of the concerns of this conference will be to re-examine this definition to investigate, evaluate, and compare the sexual component of different types of tourism. (O’Connell Davidson, 2001).

In what way [ways] is the "sex tourist" a tourist? How may tourists who do not fit into this category have a sexual tourist aspect? How useful is the category "sex tourism"? What and whom does it serve? What are its limitations and for whom? What is its history? Presenters are invited to investigate the connections between tourism and sexuality on the theoretical level bearing in mind the hypothesis that these connections are not contingent but rather stem from anthropological realities - to be analyzed. One might also explore reversing the question raised by the conference by questioning the tourism aspect of sexuality.


Tourist visiting of red-light districts, from Patpong (Bangkok) (Manderson, 1992) to De Wallen (Amsterdam) includes prostitution but isn't limited to it. These quarters - as with certain gay quarters? - have become tourist attractions, visited by millions of tourists who don't resort to the offers of prostitutes. (Graburn, 1983). Among these, who exactly are the sex tourists? What are the practices of the visitors? Who visits these quarters and how? What is the victors' discourse about their practices? How are we to understand this tourist behavior? In what ways do [professional] tourism operators take charge of these visits? Are the red-light districts of Paris, Tokyo or Hamburg visited in the same way as seascapes [seasides] in developing countries?

The red-light districts are, furthermore, not the only tourism destinations marked by sexuality. Certain types of spaces (the beach, the island, the desert, the Tropics in general) and the trip itself may be eroticized. Certain destinations (Venice) are favored by romantic couples. Others (Polynesia) are favored for wedding [honeymoon] trips. What makes a site erotic? What tourist practices are tied to this eroticization? What cultural, economic, and political factors inform [or direct] the eroticization of these destinations? Are they the same for men and women, homosexuals and heterosexuals? What is the importance of this eroticization for the tourism industry? What is its role in their eroticization, whether through marketing or by the transformation of the places concerned into tourism sites?


Is there one or [several? There appears to be a word missing here] kinds of sexual tourism, specific to travel? To what degree does tourism because of its liminality allow for a relaxing of sexual norms? Does it lend itself to rites of initiation or practices of exploration? To what degree does touristic hedonism affect sexuality? The character of vacation clubs and meeting clubs should be analyzed in this light, as well as the reality of their practices as in the carichatural discourse that they engender. If the sexuality of tourists has been of little interest to scholars, it has, however, been the object of considerable fantasy.

What is the sexuality of tourists during their travels? It goes without saying that for sex tourists it (sexuality) changes in character -- while prostitution also exists in the centers of sex tourism and as many sex workers there are of foreign origin. However, there is an abundant literature on the practices of sex tourists, little is known about the tourists who are not in this category -- for example, those who have sexual relations only with other tourists.

Some works insist on the manner in which they consider the sexuality of (potential) clients. But the sexuality of tourists is an issue in many tourism destinations, where local standards in this differ from those of the travelers.

How does is confrontation manifested from the point of view of the tourists as well as of the locals (Cohen, 1971, 1982 ; Ryanet Amber 2001)? Can the tourists be [themselves] sexual objects? Where and to what degree can tourists have what practices or assume what sexual identities? At what cost, with what precautions, and what effects? What are the effects of the sexual norms of the destination countries on the presence of tourists whose sexual identities are different from what is acceptable to the locals?


Sex tourism to "eroticized" destinations is also a lucrative business implicitly or explicitly maintained by ad hoc actors and a variety of intermediaries. Tourist marketing, including for major Western destinations, emphasizes their erotic characteristics and develops erotic products that inform the imaginaries [or images] of specific places. Sex tourism is obviously a major taboo for most "official" tourism actors [promoters] but a "softer" erotic discourse facilitates communication about the "rough [or vulgar]" side of certain cities.

In what way do these tourist products/destinations/promotions intersect with the more general tourism promotions of the same providers? How is "erotic" tourism marketing used to "sell" destinations more generally? What is the economic reality of the sexual aspects of tourism? In a more general sense, who are the actors who participate in the creation, promotion, marketing, communication, and the planning related to the destination? Who are the intermediaries who put in place and maintain sexual tourism "offers"? These people, whether they are locals or "sexpatriates" (O’Connell Davidson, 2001), whether individuals or networks, can play a determining role, however little it has been studied, in the emergence and development of sex tourism.

For that matter, in what way has the development of information and communication technologies, of digital technology, of social networks (Frigault, 2003) contributed to the creation of sex tourism networks or other eroticized tourism practices?


Sexual and erotic imaginaries are associated with certain destinations. How does the sexuality or eroticism of certain touristic places and the practices associated with them become established?

What are the trajectories of erotic imaginaries of destinations? In what way are they produced by the media (film, literary, artistic)? What role do authors, filmmakers, writers, artists play in the creation of an erotic or sexual imaginary?

What is the relationship between eroticism and exoticism? How has exoticization been the origin of the eroticization of certain tourist sites?


Sex tourism raises significant ethical issues. The sexual exploitation of women (O’Malley, 1988) and children, the preoccupations related to the prevention of infection, are major preoccupations on different levels from the micro-local level to the world level.

Ethical positions are nonetheless different, even divergent, if not in conflict among different geographical and historical contexts. Their analysis forms a significant entry into the understanding of the relationships of domination (between persons, between social and cultural groups, between North and South, between colonizers and colonized) (Hall, 1992), of relationships between sexes, in the evolution of ethical and normative positions, and in questions of local and international government.

Bibliographical References Cited:

Cohen, Eric (1971), « Arab Boys and Tourist Girls in a Mixed Jewish-Arab Community », International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 12, p. 217-233.

Cohen, Eric (1982), « Thai Girls and Farang Men: The Edge of Ambiguity », Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 9, p. 403-428.

Frigault, Louis-Robert, « Tourisme sexuel et virtualité : le voyage dans le cyberespace », Teoros 22-1, 2003.

Graburn, N. H (1983), « Tourism and Prostitution », Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 10, p. 110-116.

Hall, C.M. (1992), « Sex Tourism in South-East Asia », dans D. Harrison (dir.), Tourism and the Less Developed Countries, London, Belhaven Press, p. 64-74.

Manderson, Lenore (1992), « Public Sex Performances in Patpong and Explorations of the Edges of Imagination », Journal of Sex Research, vol. 29, p. 451-475.

O’Connell Davidson, Julia (2001), «The Sex Tourist, the Expatriate, His Ex-Wife and Her ‘Other’: The Politics of Loss, Difference and Desire », Sexualities, vol. 4, p. 5-24

O’Malley, J. (1988) « Sex Tourism and Women’s Status in Thailand », Loisir et Société, vol. 11, p. 99-114.

Oppermann, Martin (1999), « Sex Tourism », Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 26, p. 251-266.

Ryan, Chris, et Amber Martin (2001), « Tourist and Strippers: Liminal Theater », Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 28, p. 140-163.

  • I translated "toursisme sexuelle" as "sex tourism" rather than "sexual tourism," in that its usage here appears to imply a narrower rather than broader concept.

TO: Nelson Graburn and the Berkeley TSWG

FROM: Dean MacCannell

RE: Tourism and Eroticism Meeting

DATE: January 28, 2014

While we liked the openness of the draft calls for submissions (all disciplines, all theories welcome) we do not think that should absolve the organizers from taking a more proactive stance viz the problematics of the conference topic.

There is a glaring moral division within the field of sex tourism that is elided by the title "Tourism and Eroticism." This may have been the reason for some of the initial chafing about the topic. On the one side there are behaviors, interactions, and destinations that usually do not challenge moral boundaries—romantic getaways, ship board romances, "junior affairs abroad," honeymoons, etc., etc. On the other side there are travel practices that are specifically intended to violate norms ranging from the norm of sexual exclusivity in marriage ("forsaking all others—not on tour"), to hospitality support for opportunities to indulge in illicit sexual acts.

We think that conference organizers should acknowledge from the start that theories and methods adequate for the study of "romantic tourism" probably cannot be adapted to the study of "tours for perverts" or other travel that specifically proffers opportunities to bend and break sexual norms.

If we want the meeting to produce "outcomes" or "results" we need it to situate specific debates. E.g., whether there is a continuum that connects the two poles of sex tourism or a lacuna that divides them absolutely. This is a matter for both theoretical and empirical discussion that could prove to be productive.

A second key question is how is sex tourism different from sex-in-general and tourism in general? Until someone steps up and suggests some answers here, we have no domain definition. Does someone taking an eco-tour become a "sex tourist" if they purchase the services of prostitute? Suppose they also frequent prostitutes at home?

If these and other issues are not established for the participants from the beginning, the conference papers could easily degenerate into a random collection of observations of sexy tourists doing sexy things in sexy locations.

Five possible divisions for the work--not necessarily mutually exclusive:

(1) Already established sex partners travel together and use a 'romantic' restaurant, or city (Paris), or beach, as an aphrodisiac, or just enjoy freedom of expression that is not possible when the kids are around, We are in the realm of a kind of sex tourism conditioned by normal overground imaginaries such as the long standing alignment of romanticism and orientalism. Question: How is this type of "sex tourism" different from and similar to the myriad other ways couples enhance everyday sex at home. (See Simoni, "Sex, love, and intimacy: emotions, economy and morality")

(2) Trips conceived for the primary purpose of 'hooking up' with other like-minded tourists—e.g., Spring Break, English young people at Gap year 'Raves,' in S.E. Asia, or Swetha's village in India. (See Simoni, "From touristic intimacies to marriage migration")

(3) Voyages of discovery across legal / moral gradients or shifts—i.e., curiosity driven travel from a place where certain specific sexual standards and practices are forbidden by law or custom to a place where they are permitted. Visits to "Red Light" districts by tourists who may not purchase sexual services. We could fit quite a lot of anthropological investigation into this type. (See Simoni, "Stereotypes of the sexual and erotic Other.")

(4) Trips conceived and planned for the primary purpose of purchasing forbidden sexual services from local providers. European women on African sex safaris; American men who go to Cambodia and Thailand for underage sex with boys and/or girls. Etc. Questions: What are conditions at home that produce the desire to become this type of sex tourist? What are the psychic structures (ala Freud / Lacan) of the pervert tourist. How are the motives for illicit sex tourism different from other kinds of romantic or erotic tourism? Perhaps more interesting, how are they the same? What are the laws and norms that shape and guide illicit sex tourism? (See Simoni's "Sexual and erotic other," "Tourism and sex work," "Sex, tourism and power," and "Beyond heterosexual encounters and heteronormativity.")

(5) As with every typology of behaviors in the post-modern era, we must make a special category of 'meta'-sex tourism as when feminists take guided tours of sex clubs and brothels in Thailand in order to hone their PC credentials and have a first hand basis for decrying the conditions they observe. (See Simoni, Researching sex and tourism—methods/ethics.")

Geneva Conference, Possible Topics

Valerio Simoni

Stereotypes of the sexual and erotic Other: Continuities and discontinuities (‘CULTURE’)

All that has to do with the imagination of the Other (and relationally also of the Self) and tourism role in it, in relation to sex, the erotic, etc.

- Colonial & post-colonial continuities, but also paying attention to disjunctures, discontinuities, and re-semantizations.

See for instance

Jolly, M. & Manderson L. 1997. Introduction : Sites of Desire/Economies of Pleasure in Asia and the Pacific. In L. Manderson & M. Jolly (eds.). Sites of Desire Economies of Pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago & London : University of Chicago Press, 1-26.

Simoni, V. “L’interculturalité comme justification: Sexe ‘couleur locale’ dans la Cuba touristique”, in Anne Lavanchy, Fred Dervin, & Anahy Gajardo (eds), Anthropologies de l’interculturalité, 197-225. Paris: L’Harmattan.

- Strategic essentialism, culturalist views of sexual behaviour, and their (tactical) deployments in the tourism arena

- Intersections with gender, race, nation and the North-South divide

- The role of tourism institutions and tourism related narratives: from official tourism promotion material, marketing to alternative and transgressive forums and media (e.g. world sex guide, internet resources)

- David Picard’s take on these matters, e.g. ‘seduction of difference’, Self-Other dialectics, and notions of ‘encompassment’.

Sex, Love, and Intimacy: Emotions, Economy, and Morality (‘EMOTIONS/MORALITY’)

All that has to do with the emotional side of sexual/intimate encounters in tourism, and that draws attention to their potentially non transient and long term nature.

Embodied dimensions of sexual and intimate encounters: seduction, care, intercourse, etc. (see also Emotions in Motion book, for instance)

- Gendered distinctions: e.g. revisiting the sex tourism (tourist men) / romance tourism (tourism women) debate.

Frohlick, S. (2007). Fluid Exchanges: The Negotiation of Intimacy between Tourist Women and Local Men in a Transnational Town in Caribbean Costa Rica. City and Society, 19(1), 139-168.

Herold, E., Garcia, R. & DeMoya, T. (2001). Female Tourists and Beach Boys: Romance or Sex Tourism? Annals of Tourism Research, 28(4), 978-997.

Jeffreys, S. (2003). Sex Tourism: Do Women Do It Too? Leisure Studies, 22, 223-238.

Pruitt, D. & La Font, S. (1995). Love and Money: Romance Tourism in Jamaica. Annals of Tourism Research, 22, 422-440.

Sánchez Taylor, J. (2000). Tourism and ‘Embodied’ Commodities: Sex Tourism in the Caribbean. In: S. Clift & S. Carter (Eds.), Tourism and Sex: Culture, Commerce and Coercion (pp. 41-53). London and New York: Pinter.

Simoni, V. (forthcoming 2014) Breadwinners, Sex Machines and Romantic Lovers: Entangling Masculinities, Moralities, and Pragmatic Concerns in Touristic Cuba. Etnografica.

- Unpacking ‘sex tourisms’: Commoditization, transactional sex, and regimes of reciprocity

Including the notion (Bloch and Parry 1989) that different forms of economic transactions bring about different types of relationships, and that nuances are important.

Simoni, V. (forthcoming 2014) Coping with Ambiguous Relationships: Sex, Tourism and Transformation in Cuba. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

- Revisiting the intimacy-economy dialectic: The emergence of tensions between sex and money and how people cope with it.

I believe research on tourism has a lot to contribute to research that deals with similar tensions in other contexts, and which offers useful parallels and points of comparison to draw on.

Cole, J. and Thomas, L. (eds.), 2009. Love in Africa. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press.

Constable, N. (2009) The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor. Annual Review of Anthropology 38:49-64

Faier L., 2007. “Filipina Migrants in Rural Japan and their Professions of Love”, American Ethnologist, 34 (1), pp. 148–62.

Groes-Green, C. 2013. ‘To Put Men in a Bottle’: Eroticism, Kinship, Female Power, and Transactional Sex in Maputo, Mozambique. American Ethnologist 40 (1), pp. 102–117.

Hunter, M. (2010) Love in the time of AIDS: Inequality, gender and rights in South Africa. Indianapolis: University of Indiana Press.

Padilla, M. et al. (eds.), 2007. Love and Globalization: Transformations of Intimacy in the Contemporary World. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Patico, J., 2009. “For Love, Money, or Normalcy: Meanings of Strategy and Sentiment in the Russian-American Matchmaking Industry”, Ethnos 74 (3), pp. 307-330.

Povinelli, E. A., 2006. The Empire of Love: Tower a Theory of Intimacy, Genealogy, and Carnality. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Rebhun, L.A. (1999) The Heart Is an Unknown Country: Love and the Changing Economy of Northeast Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Zelizer, V.A., 2005. The Purchase of Intimacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

See also the remarks of Jennifer Cole on the conference in Copenhagen last year, which I also attended, and the work of Christian Groes-Green.

- From touristic intimacies to marriage migration

Some of the above literature refers to this, and there is an emerging body of research dealing with this, including Jennifer Cole’s (Madagascar-France), Nadine Fernandez (Cuba-Denmark), and Adriana Piscitelli’s (Brazil-Spain/Italy) work and my new project (Cuba-Spain).

- Ambiguities, misunderstanding, and their potential

Sex and the tourist/ the sex of tourism (‘NORMALITY/TRANSGRESSION’)

- Wider perspective on sex within tourism, including among and between tourists. See Frohlick’s argument about the need of ‘normalizing’ the sexual dimension of tourism, as opposed to the tendency of seeing it as ‘deviant’, etc.

Frohlick, S. (2010). The Sex of Tourism? Bodies under Suspicion in Paradise. In: J. Scott & T. Selwyn (Eds.), Thinking Through Tourism (pp. 51-70). Exford and New York: Berg.

- But also, in counterpoint to this, the more ‘liminal’, ‘exceptional’ dimensions, that often are important to engage in and justify ‘transgressive’ sexual practices while on holiday.

Sex, Tourism and Power (‘POWER’)

- Scope to revisit notions of power in tourism via the analysis of the deployments of sexuality and intimacy.

- Gender, domination, and intersections with other lines of distinction (age, ‘race’, etc.)

- The North-South divide: The political economy of sex (in) tourism and resistances to it.

- Sexual agencies, resistances.

- The human sex trafficking debate and the issue of sexual exploitation (notions of sex slavery, child sex tourism)

Tourism and sex work (‘ECONOMY/EMPLOYMENT’)

- The organization of tourism sex work

Different forms of sex work, independent, organized, formal/informal, trade unions, new resorts offering all-inclusive sex packages, etc. Issues of intermediaries, and exploitation too.

- Local notions and semantics of sex work and beyond

Interesting to examine the interplay between globalizing notions of sex, sex work, sex tourism, and more local understandings of sexuality, different economies of bodies and pleasure (Povinelli 2006, Moore, H. L. (2011). Still Life: Hopes, Desires and Satisfactions. Cambridge: Polity). Beyond notions of ‘prostitution’ and ‘sex work’ (see Cabezas 2004).

Beyond heterosexual encounters and heteronormativity (‘DIVERSITY’)

All that goes beyond heterosexual encounters and relationships. Not a specialist here, but there are certainly transgressive dimensions of sex in tourism that have a progressive potential. But this is in tension with the first theme, on stereotypes, whereby tourism can also have more conservative drives and effects.

Researching sex and tourism (‘METHODS/ETHICS’)

All the dilemmas of doing research on sex and tourism, from the erotic/sexual subjectivity of the researcher, to ethical questions, etc.

Frohlick, S. (2008) Negotiating the Public Secrecy of Sex in a Transnational Tourist Town in Caribbean Costa Rica. Tourist Studies, 8 (5), pp.19-39.

See more general reflections on the matter

Kulick, D. and M. Willson eds. (1995) Taboo: sex, identity, and erotic subjectivity in anthropological fieldwork. London: Routledge.

Markowitz, F. and Ashkenazi M. (eds.) (1999) Sex, Sexuality, and the Anthropologist. University of Illinois Press.

Some references on tourism and sex/intimacy

Allen, J. S. (2007). Mean’s of Desire’s Production: Male Sex Labor in Cuba. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 14, 183-202.

Bauer, T. G. & McKercher, B. (Eds.). (2003). Sex and Tourism: Journeys of Romance, Love, and Lust. New York: The Haworth Hospitality Press.

Bowman, G. (1996). Passion, Power and Politics in a Palestinian Tourist Market. In: T. Selwyn (Ed.), The Tourist Image: Myths and Myth Making in Tourism (pp. 84-103). Chichester: John Wiley.

Brennan, D. (2004). What’s Love Got to Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Durham: Duke University Press

Cabezas, A. L. (2004). Between Love and Money: Sex, Tourism, and Citizenship in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Signs, 29, 984-1015.

Cabezas, A. L. (2009). Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Clancy, M. (2002). The Globalization of Sex Tourism and Cuba: A Commodity Chains Approach. Studies in Comparative International Development, 36(4), 63-88.

Clift, S. & Carter, S (Eds.). (1999). Tourism and Sex: Culture, Commerce, and Coercion. London & New York: Pinter.

Cohen, E. (1971). Arab Boys and Tourist Girls in a Mixed Jewish-Arab Community. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 12, 217-233.

Cohen, E. (1996). Thai Tourism: Hill Tribes, Islands, and Open-Ended Prostitution. Bangkok: White Lotus.

Dahles, H. & Bras, K. (1999). Entrepreneurs in Romance: Tourism in Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 267-293.

De Albuquerque, K. (1998). In Search of the Big Bamboo. Transitions, 77, 48-57.

Formoso, B. (2001). Corps étrangers: Tourisme et prostitution en Thaïlande. Anthropologie et Sociétés, 25(2), 55-70.

Fosado, G. (2005). Gay Sex Tourism, Ambiguity and Transnational Love in Havana. In: D. J. Fernández (Ed.), Cuba Transnational (pp. 61-78). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Frohlick, S. (2007). Fluid Exchanges: The Negotiation of Intimacy between Tourist Women and Local Men in a Transnational Town in Caribbean Costa Rica. City and Society, 19(1), 139-168.

Frohlick, S. (2010). The Sex of Tourism? Bodies under Suspicion in Paradise. In: J. Scott & T. Selwyn (Eds.), Thinking Through Tourism (pp. 51-70). Exford and New York: Berg.

Garcia, A. (2010). Continuous Moral Economies: The State Regulation of Bodies and Sex Work in Cuba. Sexualities, 13(2), 171-196.

Herold, E., Garcia, R. & DeMoya, T. (2001). Female Tourists and Beach Boys: Romance or Sex Tourism? Annals of Tourism Research, 28(4), 978-997.

Jeffreys, S. (2003). Sex Tourism: Do Women Do It Too? Leisure Studies, 22, 223-238.

Kempadoo, K. (Ed.). (1999). Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kruhse-Mount Burton, S. (1995). Sex Tourism and Traditional Australian Male Identity. In: M.-F. Lanfant, J. B. Allcock & E. M. Bruner (Eds.), International Tourism. Identity and Change (pp. 192-204). London: Sage.

Mullings, B. (2000). Fantasy Tours: Exploring the Global Consumption of Caribbean Sex Tourism. In: M.Gottdiener (Ed.), New Forms of Consumption: Consumers, Culture, and Commodification (pp. 227-250). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

O’Connell Davidson, J. (1996). Sex tourism in Cuba. Race & Class, 38(1), 39-48.

Oppermann, M. (Ed.). (1999). Sex Tourism and Prostitution: Aspects of Leisure, Recreation, and Work. New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation.

Phillips, J. (2002). The Beach Boys of Barbados: Post-Colonial Entrepreneurs. In: S. Thorbek & B. Pattanaik (Eds.), Transnational Prostitution: Changing Global Patterns (pp. 42-45). New York: Zed Books.

Piscitelli, A. (2007). Shifting Boundaries: Sex and Money in the Northeast of Brazil. Sexualities, 10, 489-500.

Pruitt, D. & La Font, S. (1995). Love and Money: Romance Tourism in Jamaica. Annals of Tourism Research, 22, 422-440.

Roux, S. (2010). Patpong, entre sexe et commerce., Retrieved from

Ryan, C. & Hall, M. (2001). Sex Tourism: Marginal People and Liminality. London: Routledge

Salomon, C. (2009). Antiquaires et businessmen de la Petite Côte du Sénégal. Le commerce des illusions amoureuses. Cahiers d’études africaines, 193-194(1-2), 147-176.

Sánchez Taylor, J. (2000). Tourism and ‘Embodied’ Commodities: Sex Tourism in the Caribbean. In: S. Clift & S. Carter (Eds.), Tourism and Sex: Culture, Commerce and Coercion (pp. 41-53). London and New York: Pinter.

Simoni, V. (2011). L’interculturalité comme justification: Sexe ‘couleur locale’ dans la Cuba touristique. In A. Lavanchy, F. Dervin & A. Gajardo (Eds.), Anthropologies de l’interculturalité (pp.159-187). Paris: L’Harmattan.

Simoni, V. (2014 in press). Intimate Stereotypes: The Vicissitudes of Being Caliente in Touristic Cuba. Civilisations: Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines, 62(1).

Simoni, V. (2014 forthcoming) Coping with Ambiguous Relationships: Sex, Tourism and Transformation in Cuba. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.

Stout, N. (2007). Feminists, Queers and Critics: Debating the Cuban Sex Trade. Journal of Latin American Studies, 40, 721-742.

Wonders, N. A. & Michalowski, R. (2001). Bodies, Borders, and Sex Tourism in a Globalized World: A Tale of Two Cities – Amsterdam and Havana. Social Problems, 48(4), 545-571.

Lina Louise Tegtmeyer

Jan 23 (1 day ago)

Hello Nelson! Yesterday a collegue had asked me for a sample CV and look what I found! 2009 Project design for a conference (and publication) Sextourismus und Eroberung/ Sextourism and Conquest/La conquista y turismo de sexo. Emphasis on the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, West Indies). Desired participants: Aurora Arias, author Dominican Republic; Luis Eligio Perez, poet Cuba; Carolyn Cooper, Univ. West Indies; Christopher McGrath, Calvin College, MI; Doris Summer). Planned for 2012/2013. It was an idea to make a conference on sex tourism and conquista, coming from latinamerican/ transnational studies and the national romance subject that relates conquest to heteronormative sex/rape/erotic national myths of "mestizaje", considering the great discoveries as tourism. Could that be interesting for the eroticism conference? Or maybe that is too far off. It would include touristic readings of literature and history, literature reading is somthing that Christopher McGrath has done with contemporary fiction from Dominican Republic.

Heidi Kaspar- I support all the former comments in broadening the conference's topic to the myriad forms and processes seduction takes and entails. Sex tourism still could be a topic as such for one session within the conf (or two or three - I have no idea how big this conf will be).

David Picard - the more interesting to me is clearly based on the debates by Bataille and Sontag, both suggesting wonderfully evocative methodological tools (automatic writing) and links between pysochanalysis and anthropology.

To link this to tourism, you may want to discuss the "model" of north-south divisions of roles and tasks an author like Michel Houellebecq provocatively suggests in his novel Platform is a good departure point. Also the recent work by scholars like Jennifer Cole (ex UCB) and Valerio Simoni on what happens when the holiday flirt becomes more permanent, i.e. when tourists engage in more solid relationships with their vacation flirt, regularly returning or taken them with them.

I would not try to wash it down too much, by calling the event "Sex Tourism", too placative in my view; keep it theoretically challenging!

Jennifer Cole authour of: Sex and Salvation: Imagining the Future in Madagascar (2013)

The person I immediately think of with respect to this issue is my student, George Meiu (, who just graduated last year from anthropology and who is now at Concordia. He works in Samburu country in Kenya and has written quite a lot about white northern European women who travel there on sex tourism; I think he's teaching a ton but he's very good and in touch with this world and may know people. I also think of Denise Brennan who worked in the Dominican Republic and Marc Padilla, and Nadine Fernandez who was a year ahead of me at Berkeley and works in Cuba, but who is also likely to know people. You might also ask Christian Groes Green who is at Roskilde in Denmark ( -we're working together on a volume on African migrants in Europe but he did a lot of work on Danes in Mozambique with local women, and he may know. I was also just reminded (related but tangential) of Hoellebecq's controversial novel Platform -- about sex tourism in Thailand - I haven't read it but will soon and it may have at least interesting representational food for thought.

Clothilde Sabre - tourism and eroticism are quite related and this topic is discussed in many ways, from many perspectives. Have you heard about the French writer Michel Houellebecq? He wrote a novel about sexual tourism in Thaïland (Plateforme), in which he borrowed some references from Rachid Amirou, I think it reflect a lot of representations that cross society about tourism.

A bientot j'espère,

His subsequent novel, Plateforme (2001), earned him a wider reputation. It is a romance told mostly in the first-person by a 40 year-old male arts administrator, with many sex scenes and an approving attitude towards prostitution and sex tourism. The novel's depiction of life and its explicit criticism of Islam , together with an interview its author gave to the magazine Lire, led to accusations against Houellebecq by several organisations, including France's Human Rights League, the Mecca-based World Islamic League and the mosques of Paris and Lyon. Charges were brought to trial, but a panel of three judges, delivering their verdict to a packed Paris courtroom, acquitted the author of having provoked 'racial' hatred, ascribing Houellebecq's opinions to the legitimate right of criticizing religions.

A recurrent theme in Houellebecq's novels is the intrusion of free-market economics into human relationships and sexuality. Whatever (Original title, Extension du domaine de la lutte, which literally translates as "extension of the domain of the struggle") alludes to economic competition extending into the search for relationships. As the book says, a free market has winners and losers, and the same applies to relationships in a society that does not enforce monogamy. Westerners of both sexes already seek exotic locations and climates by visiting developing countries in organized trips. In Platform, the logical conclusion is that they would respond positively to sex tourism organized and sold in a corporate and professional fashion.

Lina Tegtmeyer - panels of male/females and teenagers in tourism imagery - not sure if there should be regional/national/cultural divisions....a friend from Morocco talked about Ryan air adverstisement -set on a global scale, one image for all (that is cheaper for editorial and marketing design, clearly) - and she said that the meaning of naked shoulders in an Islamic nation are blasphemic. She talked to someone from Ryan air; they didn’t care/know how to respond. That would be looking at the cultural meaning in the everyday culture of tourism imagery of "naked" or dressed bodies. The other option I am thinking is to simply do a sort of account of how the male/female/trans/...body is staged in tourism imagery and focus on the mise-en-scene. ...possibly with the theoretical background of performance theory or film .... (> e.g. Laura Mulvey "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema"). That can go together with the re-presentation/staging of bodies and how they signify certain national identities and tourism landscapes (bikini chicks as visual signifier for fun at the beach - the virgin and the untouched landscape - the authentic tourist experience with the exoticized authentic local to serve the tourists needs -....). also suggest a panel on ideas/imaginaries of eroticism and race, racism, colonial host-guest ideas in tourism then and now. (A person still around to invite here might be Paul Gilroy, not sure if that would smash the circle, but as you know, I am always tempted to bridge tourism studies with other disciplines...!). In short: visual representations of bodies and masculinity/femininity as signifiers in context of tourism industry (post-Fordist service industry and image production) and tourism as cultural practice (image consumption/production) Yujie Zhu. thanks for the continuous updates about the event. After reading the inspiring notes from MacCannell, I think other ways (examples) to develop Tourism and Eroticism (from sex tourism) could be: 1. Normal tourists go to erotic museum (a, historical erotic museum like the secret room in Nepal museum. b, Berlin sex museum) 2. Chinese group tours visit red light street in Amsterdam or Moulin Rouge (not necessarily go for sex tourism, but only as cultural tourism) 3. trading erotic art (people travel to Paris, buying or selling erotic painting) 4. online erotic game (virtual travel), this case quite common in Japan (Hikikomori) 5. international exchange program in universities such as Erasmus (Europe) or gap year, giving opportunities for young students travel to other countries for short term relationship. 6. We may also look at history, such as "comfort women" during WW2; 7. Gay parade (gay festival) as art, festival, and demonstration/procession, and their interaction with the public audience/tourists These are only some ideas without thorough studying. So please neglect them if you feel inappropriate.

Comments from two local scholars.

Bertram Gordon 12:29 AM (16 hours ago)

to me Dear Nelson,

I, too, think that the TSWG contributions were richer. A more broadly conceived conference might attract a more intellectually diverse group of participants with a broader range of approaches and interpretations. Dean MacCannell's listing of categories would be a good basis.

When I think of what I could contribute to a conference on sexual tourism, I focus on the Germans, the French, and WWII and come up with two possibilities. If the conference were to focus narrowly on sex tourism, I could talk about the German use of occupied Paris as a brothel for their troops. I've accumulated a good deal of material on the German Military authorities' regulation of prostitution in occupied Paris and it relates to tourism regarding their soldiers as tourists. More interesting to me would be the broader theme of erotics and tourism. Again, in my context, I would talk about German images of France as a kind of erotic female form in the writings of Friedrich Sieburg and others. Robert Brasillach, famously executed as a French collaborator after the war, wrote that the French had "slept" with the Germans and that the memory of the experience would remain sweet.


From: Margaret Swain <>

Dear Dean and Nelson, Thank you, I found Dean and Juliet's response useful and provocative, and wish I had had it a few months ago while working on a "Gender and Development" Handbook article on tourism. Of course, I would like to have focus on service providers and researchers, as well as on tourists. Below is a paragraph from my article that shows my not too developed thinking on gender and sexualities continuum in tourism. Take care, Peg

Gender and sexuality relationships range in a continuum from consensual to contractual to coercive in tourism markets. Scholars have used sexuality, both literal and metaphorical, as a framework for articulating the exploitative aspects of tourism. Early on, Graburn (1983) suggested that the prototypical rich North– poor South tourism dynamic can be thought of through the metaphor of the rich male purchasing or taking the services of the poor female, i.e., of countries that have “nothing to sell but their beauty” (their people, landscapes, nature). From a radical feminist perspective, male sexual power is the root of patriarchal power promoting sex-role stereotyping, heterosexism and compulsory heterosexuality, the institution of marriage, and practices of pornography, prostitution, rape, sexual and other forms of abuse of power including “domestic” violence, sex tourism and trafficking. Post-Modern, Structuralist academics and Third World feminists have argued for a more localized view of gender hierarchies, while documenting their existence and potential for transformation. An increasingly nuanced literature on the subject, for example Brennan’s (2004) study set in the Dominican Republic, suggests that although the overall dynamic is exploitative, the women involved have considerable agency and the men are not uniformly predatory on an interpersonal level. Thinking about this trajectory led me to consider a continuum from destination wedding and honeymoons, to mail-order bride travel, to sex tourism and trafficking. These kinds of gender and sexual relations tourism are often co-located, in beautiful, impoverished locations like the Dominican Republic, where local exotic cultures are a further draw. Tourism workers provide their services and products to all these tourists, while local people are also commodities in the most exploitative forms. Queer and heterosexual identities are found throughout this continuum, with some marketing aimed at gay and lesbian communities.

Paper Paper Topix:

Lina Anastassona - Relationship marketing..

Nan Boyd - area of expertise is in sexual and racial/ethnic tourism in San Francisco.

Neil Carr - : " having written and researched on a variety of issues related to sex (as broadly defined and therefore including eroticism) and tourism and leisure I'd certainly be happy to serve as a member of your scientific committee. I'd also be happy to suggest a topic: "love and romance in tourism"

Phillipe Foret - Title: Transtopia in eroticism and tourism: the US Navy, Hong Kong and Macau in the 1950s. Ulli Linke - Sensual life of the State – Arthur Lizie - sustainable tourism and links between food/body and tourism. Jared McCormick - demographics of men in Beirut as a regional hotspot for sex tourism and playground of the wealthily/wild. I was thinking how to approach a panel and what might be useful is to synthesis and put in conversation a few "case studies" or comparisons that can inform one another. I feel like I keep seeing work that examines a "new" geographic area X, Y, or Z and hopes to unpack some of the tensions of Eroticism/Tourism but then stops there - as if the existence of "sex tourism," in and of itself, is interesting. What I'm getting at, is how we might build off of these and examine larger connections (of nationality / neoliberal policies / rights etc. etc). Also a strength of Eroticism/Tourism is the uncertainty and vagueness of both terms - their tenuous and overlapping relationship to one another. Something that I keep trying to grapple with in my work are the relationships between tourists, diasporic movements, "migrations" and how they blur into one another. Do be in touch and look forward to seeing how things develop.

Rafiq Pirzada - "Erotic Mysticism and its historical importation into tourism as tourist attractions and performances." I have in mind the historical tradition of performances related to 19th century Nautch girls of Kashmir, who were legally used as dancers, singers and prostitutes by Western tourists and native rulers.

Salazar, Noel - the material I've gathered on this topic while doing fieldwork in both Indonesia and Tanzania

Anke Tonnaer – Eros & Thanatos; T & the sublime. Eros in Fieldwork/Tourism Studies

Angel Tuninetti: Travel literature and erotisme -

Swetha Vijayakumar - The Khajuraho Experience: Following Flâneurs in Phantasmagoric Temples

Gayathri (Gee) Wijesinghe - Sexual hospitality in antiquity and sexualised labour in contemporary hospitality industry/.

Victoria Vantoch takes us on a fascinating journey into the golden era of air travel. The Jet Sex explores the much-mythologized stewardess within the context of the Cold War, globalization, and the emerging culture of glamour to reveal how beauty and sexuality were critical to national identity and international politics.

“The Jet Sex: Airline Stewardesses and the Making of an American Icon.”

Victoria Vantoch

2013 | 296 pages | Cloth $34.95 American History | Women's/Gender Studies View main book page

Table of Contents

Introduction Chapter 1. Flying Nurses, Lady Pilots, and the Rise of Commercial Aviation Chapter 2. The Rise of the Stewardess Chapter 3. Breaking the Race Barrier Chapter 4. A New Jet-Winged World Chapter 5. Vodka, Tea, or Me? Chapter 6. From Warm-Hearted Hostesses to In-Flight Strippers Chapter 7. Beautiful Beehives and Feminist Consciousness


Search the full text of this book: Top of Form

Powered by Google™ “Bottom of Form “Tropical Whites: The Rise of the Tourist South in the Americas”

Catherine Cocks

276 pages | 6 x 9 | 9 color, 12 b/w illus. Cloth 2013 | ISBN 978-0-8122-4499-1 | $59.95s | £39.00 | Add to cart Ebook 2013 | ISBN 978-0-8122-0795-8 | $59.95s | £39.00 | About | Add to cart A volume in the Nature and Culture in America series View table of contents

"Catherine Cocks presents a fascinating, extremely well-informed discussion of the twentieth-century cultural development of tourism in the Americas through an examination of northerners traveling to various destinations in the global South."—Andrew Wood, University of Tulsa

As late as 1900, most whites regarded the tropics as "the white man's grave," a realm of steamy fertility, moral dissolution, and disease. So how did the tropical beach resort—white sand, blue waters, and towering palms—become the iconic vacation landscape? Tropical Whites explores the dramatic shift in attitudes toward and popularization of the tropical tourist "Southland" in the Americas: Florida, Southern California, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Drawing on a wide range of sources, Catherine Cocks examines the history and development of tropical tourism from the late nineteenth century through the early 1940s, when the tropics constituted ideal winter resorts for vacationers from the temperate zones. Combining history, geography, and anthropology, this provocative book explains not only the transformation of widely held ideas about the relationship between the environment and human bodies but also how this shift in thinking underscored emerging concepts of modern identity and popular attitudes toward race, sexuality, nature, and their interconnections.

Cocks argues that tourism, far from simply perverting pristine local cultures and selling superficial misunderstandings of them, served as one of the central means of popularizing the anthropological understanding of culture, new at the time. Together with the rise of germ theory, the emergence of the tropical horticulture industry, changes in passport laws, travel writing, and the circulation of promotional materials, national governments and the tourist industry changed public perception of the tropics from a region of decay and degradation, filled with dangerous health risks, to one where the modern traveler could encounter exotic cultures and a rejuvenating environment.

Catherine Cocks is an acquiring editor at the University of Iowa Press and author of Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850-1915.

ShareThis | View your shopping cart | Browse Penn Press titles in American History, American Studies | Join our mailing list

Annals of Leisure Research

Volume 16, Issue 4, 2013

Select Language ​ ▼ Translator disclaimer Sexualities, spaces and leisure studies

DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2013.812935 Jonah Burya* pages 371-372

Publishing models and article dates explained Published online: 18 Jul 2013 Article Views: 64 Preview View full textDownload full text Access Options Alert me View full text

Download full text

Related articles

View all related articles Houellebecq Platforme 2001

Dear Pr Graburn,

Thank you very much for your answer, I hope to meet you in Sapporo next year! Thank you also for the references, I didn't read your paper yet, I will try to find it. Indeed, tourism and eroticism are quite related and this topic is discussed in many ways, from many perspectives. Have you heard about the French writer Michel Houellebecq? He wrote a novel about sexual tourism in Thaïland (Plateforme), in which he borrowed some references from Rachid Amirou, I think it reflect a lot of representations that cross society about tourism.

A bientot j'espère,



Clothilde Sabre Docteur en ethnologie Université Lille 1 – Clersé His subsequent novel, Plateforme (2001), earned him a wider reputation. It is a romance told mostly in the first-person by a 40 year-old male arts administrator, with many sex scenes and an approving attitude towards prostitution and sex tourism. The novel's depiction of life and its explicit criticism of Islam, together with an interview its author gave to the magazine Lire, led to accusations against Houellebecq by several organisations, including France's Human Rights League, the Mecca-based World Islamic League and the mosques of Paris and Lyon. Charges were brought to trial, but a panel of three judges, delivering their verdict to a packed Paris courtroom, acquitted the author of having provoked 'racial' hatred, ascribing Houellebecq's opinions to the legitimate right of criticizing religions.

A recurrent theme in Houellebecq's novels is the intrusion of free-market economics into human relationships and sexuality. Whatever (Original title, Extension du domaine de la lutte, which literally translates as "extension of the domain of the struggle") alludes to economic competition extending into the search for relationships. As the book says, a free market has winners and losers, and the same applies to relationships in a society that does not enforce monogamy. Westerners of both sexes already seek exotic locations and climates by visiting developing countries in organized trips. In Platform, the logical conclusion is that they would respond positively to sex tourism organized and sold in a corporate and professional fashion.

Bestiality Tourism/Animal Sex Tourism, From: Joachim Williams. Joachim.willms@TOURISM-FUTURES This topic was somewhat in a discussion in Germany and the EU recently since the German government has published plans to change the laws regarding zoophilia (or bestiality) and/or sexual intercourse with animals. Both are lawful in Germany and many other European countries. There had been many rumors in Germany and other European countries about Animal Brothels and Animal Tourism with so called 'Zoos' as special-interest tourists. It is a very secret market .... but psychologist tell us that it is a market (esp. with destinations in the Netherlands, Spain, UK, Denmark and Eastern Europe). And ... we may regret these specific forms of tourism but if you follow the article regarding Zoophilia in wikipedia ... it is not at all astonishing that there is a tourism market for this. Tourist hotel staff will assure you about large numbers of so called K9 Lovers amongst ordinary (mainstream) tourists. Pet Sex Tourism is (a widely secret) part of the ordinary tourism markets.

There is an interesting article regarding animal laws and societal implications of bestiality "The Unjustified Prohibition Against Bestiality: Why the Laws in Opposition Can Find No Support in the Harm Principle", available online at

Do you remember the "pro and contra waves" caused by the Sundance Film Festival 2007 Winners Film "Zoo"; cp

An interesting source of information may be ESDAW (

About Animal Sex Tourism cases in Sweden see e. g.

More research-linked information on bestiality is also available at

And for criminal research on bestiality see e. g.: Piers Beirne, Rethinking Bestiality: Towards a Concept of Interspecies Sexual Assault, 1 THEORETICAL CRIMINOLOGY 317, 327 (1997). Piers Beirne, Peter Singer’s “Heavy Petting” and the Politics of Animal Sexual Assault, 10 CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY 43 (2001)

Kind regards


On 19.11.2012 09:42, Babu George wrote:

Animal Sex Tourism

Amaris Montes [undergraduate thesis]

The “Bad” Girls of Thailand: Deconstructing the Discourses of ‘False Consciousness’ and ‘Free Agent’ of Sex Workers in Thailand

Faculty Sponsor: Nelson Graburn

More Bibliography:

“Sex: The Power of the Powerless? The Use of Sex as a Spousal Influence Strategy in Vacation Purchase Decisions”

DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2010.520946 Ya'arit Bokek-Cohena* & Sabina Lissitsab pages 431-448

Version of record first published: 20 Nov 2010 Article Views: 141 Alert me Abstract

This study is the first to test empirically the common notion regarding sexual manipulation as a spousal influence strategy during couples' vacation purchasing decisions. The study examined whether the use of sex as a spousal influence strategy is more prevalent among individuals who have less marital power than their spouses. Marital power is treated as two-dimensional: the first dimension is objective and composed of actual economic resources; the second is subjective and composed of feelings. A sample of 192 married or cohabiting men evaluated their own and their partner's use of sex as a means of exerting influence during a vacation decision process. Female subjects with low levels of subjective marital power and male subjects with low levels of objective marital power used sex as a spousal influence strategy at a higher frequency. The study found that during a vacation decision process, the use of sex as a spousal influence strategy is impacted by the marital power balance between the spouses. Second, economic power is not the dominant factor that affects the use of this influence strategy; rather, it is interpersonal power that is influential. The findings imply that sex may be used as a power strategy by the powerless.

Journal of Tourism History

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2012


“The state of sex: tourism, sex and sin in the New American Heartland”


C. Michael Halla* pages 121-122 Version of record first published: 19 Apr 2012

Journal of Tourism History Scarborough in the 1730s – spa, sea and sex Allan Brodie a a English Heritage, Heritage Protection, The Engine House, Fire Fly Avenue, Swindon, SN2 2EH, UK Version of record first published: 04 Jul 2012.

Roux, Sébastien 2011. No money, no honey. Économies intimes du tourisme sexuel en Thaïlande. Paris: Éditions La Découverte. 276 p., 22€, ISBN: 9782707167125

Sex Tourism in Africa: Kenya’s Booming Industry Wanjohi Kibicho Aldershot, Ashgate, NewDirections in Tourism Analysis series, 2009. 231 pp., £50.00, REVIEW: Gary Lacey (2012): A Review of “Sex Tourism in Africa: Kenya's Booming Industry”, Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 14:3, 528-531

Select Conferences, Conferences Online[edit]

Select Conversations / Dialogues / Idea Competitions[edit]

Select Databases[edit]

Centre International de Recherches et d’Etudes Touristiques (CIRET) Tourism Studies' Database. 2011. CIRET Tourism Studies' Database. (Invitation to directly contact CIRET by email at with questions. Currently our Documentation Centre contains 159,359 documents, including the refereed articles of 162 journals. These documents are classified by theme – see the thesaurus on CIRET’s website - and by country – see the geographical index on CIRET’s website. Research and Documentation Centre in Aix-en-Provence collects, catalogues and distributes published tourism, leisure, outdoor recreation and hospitality literature from around the world). Aix-en-Provence, France: Centre International de Recherches et d’Etudes Touristiques.

Select Dictionaries[edit]

Select Encyclopedias[edit]

Select Facts[edit]

Select Films[edit]

Select Film Reviews[edit]

Select Forums, Spaces, etc.[edit]

Select Funding Sources[edit]

Google + Hangouts, Group Video, etc.[edit]

Select Humor[edit]

Select Idea Competitions / Conversations / Dialogues[edit]

Select Images, Infographics, etc.[edit]

Select Institutes, etc.[edit]

Select Interviews[edit]

Select Journals, Serials, etc.[edit]

Journal of Tourism History. 2010. Journal of Tourism History. Routledge.

Select Labs[edit]

Select Lectures[edit]

Select Libraries, Archives, Collections, etc.[edit]

(See also editable World University and School's Library Resources' page:

Select Maps[edit]

Select Multimedia[edit]

Select Museums[edit]

(See also editable World University and School's Museums' page:

Select Newspapers, News[edit]

Select Office Hours[edit]

Select Photos[edit]

Select Programs, Applications, Languages, Software[edit]

Kessler, Sarah. 2010. 7 Ways Mobile Apps are Enriching Historical Tourism. September 26.

Select Questions, Inquiries, Problems[edit]

Select Quotes, Quotations, etc.[edit]

'A bit harsh, but still good (David Foster Wallace): "To be a mass tourist, for me, is to become a pure late-date American: alien, ignorant, greedy for something you cannot ever have, disappointed in a way you can never admit. It is to spoil, by way of sheer ontology, the very unspoiledness you are there to experience. It is to impose yourself on places that in all noneconomic ways would be better, realer, without you. It is, in lines and gridlock and transaction after transaction, to confront a dimension of yourself that is as inescapable as it is painful: As a tourist, you become economically significant but existentially loathsome, an insect on a dead thing."'

(Wallace, David Foster. 2004. Consider the Lobster August 2004 - via Patrick Gallagher).

Select RSS Feeds[edit]

Select Recordings[edit]

Select References[edit]

Champion, Erik. 2013. History and Heritage in Virtual Worlds. Perth, Australia:

Devine, Kit. 2012. Making Place: Designing and building an engaging, interactive and pedagogical historical world. Acton, Australia: Australian National University.

Foster, Chris. 2015. Why haven’t digital platforms transformed firms in developing countries? The Rwandan tourism sector explored. February 10. Oxford, England: .

Garfors, Gunnar. 2013. The 25 Least Visited Countries in the World.

Graburn, Nelson H. H. 2015. Ethnic Tourism in Rural China: Cultural or Economic Development. .

Graburn, Nelson H. H. And Jafar Jafari (eds.). 1991. Tourism Social Science. Vol. 18, No. 1. New York, NY: Pergamon Press - Annals of Tourism Research: A Social Science Journal.

Graburn, Nelson and Zhang. 2012. Tourism Anthropology & Practise in China, Zhang, Graburn & Zhang 2012. (In Mandarin? - Chinese).

Hashim, N. H., & Murphy, J. 2007. Branding on the Internet: Evolving Domain Name Usage among Malaysian Hotels. Tourism Management, 28(2), 621-624.

Hashim, N. H., Murphy, J., & Muhamad Hashim, N. 2007. Islam and Online Imagery on Malaysian Tourist Destination Websites. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12(3),

Loperena, Christopher. 2014. Sustainable Tourism and Its Discontents: The Case of Honduras. OCTOBER 3. Berkeley, CA:

MacLeod, Scott. 2014. Pacific Salmon: UC Berkeley / Sorbonne 'Tourism and Eroticism/Sexuality' conference June 2015 in Switzerland, Google Translate and Hangouts for communications?, UC Berkeley Harbin talk in November 2012, Harbin book, Money's book "Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation" (Oxford 1988), WUaS's Tourism Studies, Sexuality, and Erotism, wiki subjects, Berkeley Meetings - Tourisme et Erotisme / Eroticism and Tourism Conference Announcement, SEX TOURISM IN COLONIAL CASABLANCA: Bousbir, the Quartier Réservé, Added a great amount of 'Tourism and Eroticism' Conference Materials (and a new section by this name to the SUBJECT TEMPLATE) to the Tourism Studies' wiki subject page at WUaS, and this blog entry, as well. February 5. Canyon, CA:

Mortensen, Lena and George Nicholas. 2010. [ Riding the Tourism Train? Navigating Intellectual Property, Heritage and Community-Based Approaches to Cultural Tourism]. Anthropology News.

Murphy, J., Hashim, N. H., & O'Connor, P. 2007. Take Me Back: Validating the Wayback Machine. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1),

Nelson, Robert S. 2004. Tourists Terrorists and Metaphysical Theater at Hagia Sophia. (In Monuments and Memory, Made and Unmade edited by Robert S. Nelson and Margaret Olin, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; see, too: New Haven, CT: .

Nerval's Lobster. 2012. Google Acquiring Frommer's In Big Travel Data Play. August 14.

Pang. L, Penfold, P, Wong, S. 2010. Chinese Learners’ Perceptions of Blended Learning in a Hospitality and Tourism Management Programme. 22(1), pp. 15-22. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education.

Penfold, Paul. 2009. Learning Through the World of Second Life—A Hospitality and Tourism Experience. 8:2,139 — 160. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism.

Penfold, P. Duffy. P. 2010. A Second Life First Year Experience. Volume 2, Number 5 The Metaverse Assembled, April. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research.

Penfold, P, Denizci, B, Liu, Z. 2010. Conducting Hotel Co-Branding Research in the Virtual World of Second Life: An Exploratory Study. APacCHRIE 2010, Phuket, Thailand.

Penfold. P., Ladkin, A., 2010. Exploring the Chinese Tourism Curriculum: A case study of Guilin Institute of Tourism, China. APacCHRIE 2010, Phuket, Thailand.

Salazar, Noel B. 2014. Heritage tourism in the context of globalization (全球化语境下的遗产旅游研究及其反思). (In Mandarin Chinese) Belgium: .

Vermelyen, Saskia and Jeremy Pilcher. 2014. Let the ‘Objects’ Speak: Online Museums and Indigenous Cultural Heritage.

Smartphones and Traveling

Dachisask, Adam. 2013. How Can I Save Money on My Smartphone Bill When Traveling Internationally?. January 8.

Higgins, Michelle. 2011. How to Beat Roaming Fees While Traveling Abroad. August 10. New York, NY: The New York Times.

Higgins, Michelle. 2011. How to Beat the High Costs of Dialing Abroad. August 3. New York, NY: The New York Times.

Stay in touch without racking up big wireless bills. 2013. Stay in touch without racking up big wireless bills: Take your mobile phone or tablet with you when traveling abroad. (Last updated: June 2013). Yonkers, NY:

Select Reviews[edit]

Select Search Engines[edit]

Select Simulations, Applets and Visualizations[edit]

Select Slideshows[edit]

Select Societies, Associations, Groups, Networks, etc.[edit]

Tourism Studies' Working Group. 2011. Tourism Studies' Working Group PRESENTING AUTHORS. Berkeley, CA: UC Berkeley Tourism Studies' Working Group.

Select Study Guides[edit]

Select Surveys[edit]

Select Syllabi[edit]

Select Teachers with Email Addresses/Contact Information[edit]

Graburn, Nelson. 2003. Professor Nelson Graburn]. Berkeley, CA: UC Berkeley.

Select Tests, Exams, etc.[edit]

Select Textbooks[edit]

Select Theses, Dissertations, Papers, etc.[edit]

Select Timelines[edit]

Select Twitters[edit]

Select Video and Audio[edit]

Grateful Dead. 1978. Grateful Dead Rocking The Cradle Egypt 1978 The Vacation Tapes. Giza, Egypt:

Incredible India - 3: Varanasi (Benares). 2013. Incredible India - 3: Varanasi (Benares). Ludwig Bispink's Youtube channel.

Select Video Conferences[edit]

Select Videocasts and Podcasts[edit]

Select Websites[edit]

H-Net. 2012. H-Travel - Network for the academic discussion of the history of travel, transport, and tourism. Michigan State University.

Select Wikis[edit]

Select Writers, Researchers, etc.[edit]

Subjects' Social Networking Sites[edit]

Tourism Global Classroom. 2015. Tourism Global Classroom. USA:


Wikimedia Commons[edit]

Wikimedia Commons:









World University and School Links[edit]


Hospitality and Tourism:


Social Science:


Tourism Studies:

WUaS Navigation[edit]

Academic Advising at WUaS[edit]

Academic Press at World University and School[edit]

Academic Press at World University and School:

Access to Live, or Email, University Technical Expertise[edit]

Ask a question in a specific discipline, or find, for example, a Robotics' or Computer programmer, or Translator, easily and freely.

Additional Categories[edit]

Admissions at World University and School[edit]

Admissions' Department:

Flyer seeking degree-oriented, WUaS students: 'Quaker-informed World University & School seeks friendly, undergraduate students for free, online, Greatest Universities-centric, bachelor’s degrees to apply in the autumn of 2013, for matriculation in autumn 2014' - - and accessible here, also - WUaS holds open, electronically-mediated, hour-long, monthly business meeting on the second Saturdays at 9 am Pacific Time, in the manner of Quakers - email if you'd like to participate.

Digital and Print catalog

Assistive Technologies[edit]

WUaS plans to anticipate numerous developing assistive technologies for sight-impaired, hearing-impaired, and similar -

Assistive Technologies:

Blog at World University and School[edit]

Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at World University and School[edit]

Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at WUaS:

with educational electronics, as well; with musical instruments; value pricing ... 2% below market, consistently; available via mail and electronically;

Calendar (Schedule what you'd like to teach)[edit]


Join the World University and School Google + Group to add to its wiki-like calendar to teach an open, free class or course, converse about ideas, and jam (e.g. musically or theater improvisation): .


Career counseling:

Finding / creating a job you really love:

WUaS Job hunting:




Geodetic datums such as WGS84 or GPS

Geohash keys

... in a virtual world


Many thanks to each of you!

Please feel free to hyperlink your name to a location of your choice (or tell WUaS where to link to - Please do not hesitate to let WUaS know if you think that somebody (including yourself) has been forgotten, now or in the future; please include a URL, which is, of course, one main way identity created on the internet.

Digital To Do[edit]


Brainwave device / Headset

Broadcast to radio frequencies

Broadcast to TV / television

Create EMail group for page

Digital Text to Audio file format (Browse Aloud / Read Aloud?)

Google Glass

MIT OCW Mirror Site Instructions:

Oculus Rift


Publish to DVD


Send to phone




Free Degrees / Credit[edit]

MIT OCW Audio Video Courses:

Admissions at World University and School:

Conference Method of Teaching and Learning:

The College at World University and School:

Ph.D. Degrees at World University and School:

World University Law School:

World University Medical School:

World University Music School:

WUaS International Baccalaureate Diploma and Programme:
(beginning with United Nations' languages - Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian, Spanish)

In Google Earth[edit]

Google Earth.

In Virtual World[edit]

(Search on the word 'lists' here, too:

3D Learn. 2013.

Active Worlds Educational Universe (AWEDU). 2012.

Alice. 2012.

Minecraft. 2012.

Edusim. 2013.

Gifted 2013.

ISTE – SIGMS. 2013.

Kaneva. 2014.

Open Cobalt. 2013.

OpenSim. 2012. (

Open Croquet. 2012. and

Open Wonderland. 2012.

Primary Games. 2013.

Quest Atlantis. 2012. (

SimScience. 2012.

Second Life - Harvard's virtual island. 2012. - and teach, learn and share ideas - in group voice chat, or in group type chat, and via building.

SmallWorlds. 2014. 2014.

Twinity. 2014.

Unity3D. 2012.

WiloStar3D. 2013.

World of Warcraft in School. 2014.

Add a learning-oriented virtual world here:

Travel to this virtual island to learn building:

Item Number[edit]

Global ID and Multiple IDs - see

Bar code


Learning Networking[edit]

Teach and Learn using free Social Networking software to share what courses, etc., you find edifying, what you enjoy learning ....

About Me - World University and School -'s World University and School -'s World University and School -'s World University and School - ('This group may be archived').

Good Reads -

Google + Profiles - - Scott MacLeod -

Google + Profiles Company page - - World University and School -

Google Groups' World University and School -


LinkedIn's World University and School -

Quora -

Research Gate -'s World University and School -'s World University and School -'s World University and School -

Wer Kennt Wen - World University and School -

World University & School 'subject page' group

World University & School Share This

Yahoo Groups' World University and School:

RSS Feed[edit]

TV-Live Broadcasting[edit]

Broadcast to television

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software to the web:

Google + Hangouts -

Justin TV -

Livestream TV -

Ustream TV -

Video Communication[edit]

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software

Free video conferencing

iChat -

Skype -

Free, group video conferencing

AnyMeeting -

Google + Hangout - -

Meeting Burner - – up to 15 connection

ooVoo -

Paltalk -

sifonr - free communication -‎

Tokbox | OpenTok - API -

Vyew -

Web Huddle - - - Cloud HD Video Meetings -

Universal Translator at WUaS[edit]

Google Translate language:

Sugar Labs: Translation System language:


Select Translators

Babelxl. 2015. Babelxl: the best translator. .

Babylon Online Translation. 2015. Babylon Online Translation. (Offering hundreds of dictionaries and translation in more than 800 language pairs). . 2015. .

Google Translate. 2015. Google Translate. .

SDL Free Translation. 2015. SDL Free Translation. .

Word Lingo Free Translation Tools. 2015. Word Lingo Free Translation Tools and Machine Translation Products. .

Select Video with Subtitles for Translation 2015. Captions, subtitles, and translations simplified. (Amara makes video globally accessible: Captions, subtitles, and translations simplified).

TED Open Translation Project. 2015. TED Open Translation Project. (See - - and - .

The "Universitian" Newspaper at World University and School[edit]

The "Universitian" Newspaper at WUaS

Wiki Software for Courses[edit]

Media Wiki -

PB Works -

Wet Paint -

Wikia -

Wikispaces -

Wikidata / Bots[edit]

World University and School Licensing[edit]

World University and School - like Wikipedia with Greatest Universities' OpenCourseWare - incorporated as a nonprofit effective April 2010 and is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt, educational organization charity.

World University & School is a community of learners and teachers who value — and are themselves strengthened by — the rich diversity of its participants. In order to cultivate a flourishing teaching, learning and creating conversation in a diverse and complex world, WUaS welcomes all languages, students, families, faculty, board members, and staff with differences based on (but not limited to) race, color, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, family structure, and economic background.

All content on this site is freely available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) - .

Library Resources:
Nation States:
You at World University:
Educational Software:
Hardware Resource Possibilities:
Frequently Asked Questions at World University & School:
World University Foundation:


Volunteers at World University and School:

For questions, or help editing a page, email:

WUaS's listing - .

Please donate through PayPal to tax-exempt - 501 (c) (3) - World University and School at
Thank you!