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Revision as of 19:37, 28 September 2013

World University and School {in a virtual world}

Welcome to World University and School Wiki
which anyone can add to or edit.
The Global, Virtual/Digital, Open, Free, {potentially Degree- and Credit-Granting},
Multilingual University & School
where anyone can teach or take a class or course

  • Add or take a free, open Music School teaching or learning.

Music School

  • Add free, open musical instrument instruction and jamming opportunities below.
  • Come join a live, improvisation music jam in virtual worlds here. Currently, two weekly, online Music Playing Spaces are happening for social yet independent playing - https://plus.google.com/u/0/112822712931339453961/posts - on Wednesdays from 9-10pm and Fridays 5:30-6:30pm Pacific Time. Let worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com know if you'd like to join in.
  • World University & School hopes to create editable pages for all musical instruments, in all languages - with open, free teaching, learning, sharing and jamming possibilities, - as wiki.
  • How to re-kindle PLAY in learning, in teaching, in the budding Music School?
  • Teach & learn openly about Music here in the open, free, editable WUaS page, which we all can create together.

Lessons, Instruction and Jamming

Alphabetical list of musical instruments +

Add free, open Music School Courses Web Site Organization (if any) Degree / Non-degree Instructor's Name Location Other Info Language Tags
Accordion Non-degree Browser Other Info English Scottish
Bagpipe Tutorials Non-degree Browser Other Info English Scottish
Banjo non-degree Browser English
Bass http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Bass drum http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Bass Guitar Non-degree Browser English
Bassoon non-degree Browser English
Biwa non-degree Browser English Japan, Yoko Hiraoka
Bongos non-degree Browser English
Celeste non-degree Browser English Japan, Yoko Hiraoka
Clarinet http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Classical Indian Music URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info Language
Classical Western Music URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Cymbals http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Dobro http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Doublebass http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Drums http://www.freedrumlessons.com/drum-lessons/ Railroad Media non-degree Jared Falk and Rick Kettner Browser English Drum Set, Rock and Roll
English Horn Railroad Media non-degree Browser English
Fiddling (Fiddle) URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Flute http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
French Horn http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Ghatam http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Great Highland Bagpipe http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Hammer Dulcimer http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Harmonium http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Harmony http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Harp http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Horn http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

Hurdy Gurdy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVXno2UGdIw non-degree Browser Start anytime English

iPhone as musical instrument
Keyboards http://www.ehow.com/videos-on_2654_rock-roll-keyboard-lessons.html eHow non-degree Craig Dockery Browser Rock and Roll Keyboard Lessons: Video Series English
Khanjeera http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Mandolin http://www.mandolessons.com/lessons.html MandoLessons non-degree Baron Collins-Hill Browser Free Mandolin Lessons for the Good of the People English
Marimba English
Music Composition English
Music Education English

Northumbrian smallpipes English
Nyckelharpa (keyed fiddle) English
Oboe http://www.musicked.com/Online/1-Discovery/Discovery/Oboe.htm Musicked.com non-degree Browser English
Organ non-degree Browser English
Oud http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p1juvZaSk0A non-degree Browser Edward Powell English
Pakhwaj http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Pedal Steel http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Pedal Steel http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Piano non-degree Browser Edward Powell English
Raga http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OllYpRUFf4 non-degree Browser Edward Powell English
Recorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OllYpRUFf4 non-degree Browser Edward Powell English
Sarod URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Singing URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Singing for Kids / Children URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Singing Harmony URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Singing Walking Bass Lines URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Sitar URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Snare drum http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Suzuki Method http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Tabla http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1mfZyeP05A Bayan Degree / Non-degree Venkat Tallapragada Tabla Lesson Basics: for beginners - Ta Tee Tin : Dha Dhee Dhin - At least 11 lessons in this series English Indian Music, Drum
Tam tam (or gong) http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Tambura URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Timpani http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Tin Whistle non-degree Browser Free, online Tin Whistle lessons English
Triangle http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Trombone http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Trumpet http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English
Tuba http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

Ukulele http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

Viola non-degree Browser English
Violin non-degree Browser English
Virtual Choir URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Voice URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
World Music URL Instructor Degree / Non-degree Location Other Info
Instrument Name http:// non-degree Browser Start anytime English

Musical Instrument List

Using this classification system (Hornbostel-Sachs), plus additions for not yet classified instruments, World University and School hopes to facilitate a COMPLETE list of world instruments, with a musical instrument template like its SUBJECT TEMPLATE - http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/SUBJECT_TEMPLATE - with jamming possibilities in virtual worlds, potentially, here. And WUaS would like to do this in many of the 3,000-8,000 languages. (This classification may become a key way to structure the Music school's database).

Please add instruments in the categories below.

Idiophones (1)

Idiophones - sound is primarily produced by the actual body of the instrument vibrating, rather than a string, membrane, or column of air. In essence, this group includes all percussion instruments apart from drums, as well as some other instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs-classification idiophones are firstly categorized according to the method used in playing the instrument. This results in four main categories: struck idiophones (11), plucked idiophones (12), friction idiophones (13), and blown idiophones (14). These groups are subsequently divided through various criteria. In many cases these sub-categories are split in singular specimens and sets of instruments. The latter category includes the xylophone, the marimba, the glockenspiel, and the glass harmonica. List of idiophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number.

Struck idiophones (11)

These idiophones are set in vibration by being struck, for example cymbals or xylophones.

Directly struck idiophones (111)

The player himself executes the movement of striking; whether by mechanical intermediate devices, beaters, keyboards, or by pulling ropes, etc. It is definitive that the player can apply clearly defined individual strokes and that the instrument itself is equipped for this kind of percussion.

  • 111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers - Two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck against each other.
    • 111.11 Concussion sticks or stick clappers.
    • 111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers.
    • 111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers.
    • 111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers.
      • 111.141 Castanets - Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers
      • 111.142 Cymbals - Vessel clappers with manufactured rim.
  • 111.2 Percussion idiophones - The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object (hand, stick, striker) or against a non-sonorous object (human body, the ground).
    • 111.21 Percussion sticks.
      • 111.211 Individual percussion sticks.
      • 111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. - All Xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes.
    • 111.22 Percussion plaques.
      • 111.221 Individual percussion plaques.
      • 111.222 Sets of percussion plaques - Examples are the Lithophone and also most Metallophones.
    • 111.23 Percussion tubes.
      • 111.231 Individual percussion tubes.
      • 111.232 Sets of percussion tubes.
    • 111.24 Percussion vessels.
      • 111.241 Gongs - The vibration is strongest near the vertex.
        • 111.241.1 Individual gongs.
        • 111.241.2 Sets of gongs.
      • 111.242 Bells - The vibration is weakest near the vertex.
        • 111.242.1 Individual bells
          • 111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward.
          • 111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex.
            • 111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers.
            • 111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers.
        • 111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes.
          • 111.242.11 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward.
          • 111.242.12 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex.
            • 111.242.121 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers.
            • 111.242.122 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.

Indirectly struck idiophones (112)

The player himself does not go through the movement of striking; percussion results indirectly through some other movement by the player.

  • 112.1 Shaken Idiophones or rattles - The player makes a shaking motion
    • 112.11 Suspension rattles - Perforated idiophones are mounted together, and shaken to strike against each other.
      • 112.111 Strung rattles - Rattling objects are strung in rows on a cord.
      • 112.112 Stick rattles - Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring.
    • 112.12 Frame rattles - Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike.
      • 112.121 Pendant rattles.
      • 112.122 Sliding rattles.
    • 112.13 Vessel rattles - Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both.
  • 112.2 Scraped Idiophones - The player causes a scraping movement directly or indirectly; a non-sonorous object moves along the notched surface of a sonorous object, to be alternately lifted off the teeth and flicked against them; or an elastic sonorous object moves along the surface of a notched non-sonorous object to cause a series of impacts. This group must not be confused with that of friction idiophones.
    • 112.21 Scraped sticks.
      • 112.211 Scraped sticks without resonator.
      • 112.212 Scraped sticks with resonator.
    • 112.22 Scraped tubes.
    • 112.23 Scraped vessels.
    • 112.24 Scraped wheels - cog rattles or Ratchet
  • 112.3 Split idiophones - Instruments in the shape of two springy arms connected at one end and touching at the other: the arms are forced apart by a little stick, to jungle or vibrate on recoil.

Plucked idiophones (12)

Plucked idiophones (lamellophones) - idiophones set in vibration by being plucked, for example the Jew's harp or thumb piano. This group is sub-divided in the following two categories

In the form of a frame (121)

The lamellae vibrate within a frame or hoop.

  • 121.1 Clack idiophones or Cricri - The lamella is carved in the surface of a fruit shell, which serves as resonator.
  • 121.2 Guimbardes and Jews' harps - The lamella is mounted in a rod- or plaque-shaped frame and depends on the player's mouth cavity for resonance.
    • 121.21 Idioglot guimbardes - The lamella is of one substance with the frame of the instrument.
    • 121.22 Heteroglot guimbardes - The lamella is attached to the frame.
      • 121.221 Individual heteroglot guimbardes.
      • 121.222 Sets of heteroglot guimbardes.

In the form of a comb (122)

The lamellae are tied to a board or cut out from a board like the teeth of a comb.

  • 122.1 With laced on lamellae.
    • 122.11 Without resonator.
    • 122.12 With resonator.
  • 122.2 With cut-out lamellae - Musical box

Friction idiophones (13)

Idiophones which are rubbed, for example the nail violin, a bowed instrument with solid pieces of metal or wood rather than strings.

Friction sticks (131)

  • 131.1 Individual friction sticks.
  • 131.2 Sets of friction sticks.
    • 131.21 Without direct friction.
    • 131.22 With direct friction.

Friction plaques (132)

  • 132.1 Individual friction plaques.
  • 132.2 Sets of friction plaques.

Friction vessels (133)

  • 133.1 Individual friction vessels.
  • 133.2 Sets of friction vessels.

Blown idiophones (14)

Blown idiophones - idiophones set in vibration by the movement of air, for example the Aeolsklavier, an instrument consisting of several pieces of wood which vibrate when air is blown onto them by a set of bellows.

Blown sticks (141)

  • 141.1 Individual blown sticks.
  • 141.2 Sets of blown sticks.

Blown plaques (142)

  • 142.1 Individual blown plaques.
  • 142.2 Sets of blown plaques.

Unclassified idiophones (15)

Membranophones (2)

Membranophones - sound is primarily produced by the vibration of a tightly stretched membrane. This group includes all drums and kazoos. List of membranophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number

Struck membranophones (21)

Struck drums - instruments which have a struck membrane. This includes most types of drum, such as the timpani and snare drum.

Directly struck membranophones (211)

Instruments in which the membrane is struck directly, such as through bare hands, beaters or keyboards

  • 211.1 Instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped (kettle drums)
    • 211.11 Single instruments
    • 211.12 Sets of instruments
  • 211.2 Instruments in which the body is tubular (tubular drums)
    • 211.21 Instruments in which the body has the same diameter at the middle and end (cylindrical drums)
      • 211.211 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.211.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.211.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.212 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.212.1 Single instruments
        • 211.212.2 Sets of instruments
    • 211.22 Instruments in which the body is barrel-shaped (barrel drums)
      • 211.221 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.221.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.221.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.222 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.222.1 Single instruments
        • 211.222.2 Sets of instruments
    • 211.23 Instruments in which the body is double-conical
      • 211.231 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.231.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.231.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.232 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.232.1 Single instruments
        • 211.232.2 Sets of instruments
    • 211.24 Instruments in which the body is hourglass-shaped
      • 211.241 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.241.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.241.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.242 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.242.1 Single instruments
        • 211.242.2 Sets of instruments
    • 211.25 Instruments in which the body is conical-shaped (conical drums)
      • 211.251 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.251.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.251.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.252 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.252.1 Single instruments
        • 211.252.2 Sets of instruments
    • 211.26 Instruments in which the body is goblet-shaped (goblet drums)
      • 211.261 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
        • 211.261.1 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
        • 211.261.2 Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
      • 211.262 Instruments which have two usable membranes
        • 211.262.1 Single instruments
        • 211.262.2 Sets of instruments
  • 211.3 Instruments in which the body depth is not greater than the radius of the membrane (frame drums)
    • 211.31 Instruments which do not have a handle
      • 211.311 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
      • 211.312 Instruments which have two usable membranes
    • 211.32 Instruments which have a handle
      • 211.321 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
      • 211.322 Instruments which have two usable membranes

Shaken membranophones (212)

Instruments which are shaken, the membrane being vibrated by objects inside the drum (rattle drums)

Plucked membranophones (22)

Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates (plucked drums) Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones (see below).

Friction membranophones (23)

Instruments in which the membrane vibrates as a result of friction. These are drums which are rubbed, rather than being struck.

Friction drums with stick (231)

Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated from a stick that is rubbed or used to rub the membrane

  • 231.1 Instruments in which the stick is inserted in a hole in the membrane
    • 231.11 Instruments in which the stick can not be moved and is subject to rubbing, causing friction on the membrane
    • 231.12 Instruments in which the stick is semi-movable, and can be used to rub the membrane
    • 231.13 Instruments in which the stick is freely movable, and is used used to rub the membrane
  • 231.2 Instruments in which the stick is tied upright to the membrane

Friction drum with chord (232)

Instruments in which a cord, attached to the membrane, is rubbed

  • 232.1 Instruments in which the drum is held stationary while playing
    • 232.11 Instruments which have only one usable membrane
    • 232.12 Instruments which have two usable membranes
  • 232.2 Instruments in which the drum is twirled by a cord, which rubs in a notch on the stick held by the player

Hand friction drums (233)

Instruments in which the membrane is rubbed by hand

Singing membranes (kazoos) (24)

This group includes kazoos, instruments which do not produce sound of their own, but modify other sounds by way of a vibrating membrane.

Free kazoos (241)

Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated by an unbroken column of wind, without a chamber

Tube or vessel-kazoos (242)

Instruments in which the membrane is placed in a box, tube or other container

Unclassified membranophones (25)

Chordophones (3)

Chordophones - sound is primarily produced by the vibration of a string or strings that are stretched between fixed points. This group includes all instruments generally called string instruments in the west, as well as many (but not all) keyboard instruments, such as pianos and harpsichords. List of chordophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number

Simple chordophones or zithers (31)

Instruments which are in essence simply a string or strings and a string bearer. These instruments may have a resonator box, but removing it should not render the instrument unplayable (although it may result in quite a different sound being produced). They include the piano therefore, as well as other kinds of zithers such as the koto, and musical bows.

Bar or stick zithers (311)

The string bearer is bar shaped.

  • 311.1 Musical bows - The string bearer is flexible (and curved).
    • 311.11 Idiochord musical bows - The string is cut from the bark of the cane, remaining attached at each end.
      • 311.111 Mono-idiochord musical bows - Containing one string only
      • 311.112 Poly-idiochord musical bows or harp-bows - Containing several strings that pass over some type of bridge.
    • 311.12 Heterochord musical bows - The string is of separate material from the bearer.
      • 311.121 Mono-heterochord musical bows - The bow has one heterochord string only.
        • 311.121.1 Without resonator.
          • 311.121.11 Without tuning noose.
          • 311.121.12 With tuning noose.
        • 311.121.2 With resonator.
          • 311.121.21 With independent resonator.
          • 311.121.22 With resonator attached.
            • 311.121.221 Without tuning noose.
            • 311.121.222 With tuning noose.
      • 311.122 Poly-heterochord musical bows - The bow has several heterochord strings.
        • 311.122.1 Without tuning noose.
        • 311.122.2 With tuning noose.
  • 311.2 Stick zithers - With rigid string carrier
    • 311.21 Musical bow/stick - The string carrier has one rigid and one flexible end.
    • 311.22 True stick zithers - NB Round sticks which happen to be hollow by chance do not belong on this account to the tube zithers, but are round-bar zithers; however, instruments in which a tubular cavity is employed as a true resonator, like the modern Mexican harpa, are tube zithers.
      • 311.221 With one resonator gourd.
      • 311.222 With several resonator gourds.

Tube zithers (312)

The string bearer is a vaulted surface.

  • 312.1 Whole tube zithers - The string carrier is a complete tube
    • 312.11 Idiochord tube zithers.
    • 312.12 Heterochord tube zithers.
      • 312.121 Without extra resonator.
      • 312.122 With extra resonator.
  • 312.2 Half-tube zithers - The strings are stretched along the convex surface of a gutter.
    • 312.21 Idiochord half-tube zithers.
    • 312.22 Heterochord half-tube zithers.

Raft zithers (313)

The string bearer is composed of canes tied together in the manner of a raft

  • 313.1 Idiochord raft zithers.
  • 313.2 Heterochord raft zithers.

Board zithers (314)

The string bearer is a board

  • 314.1 True board zithers.
    • 314.11 Without resonator.
    • 314.12 With resonator.
      • 314.121 With resonator bowl.
      • 314.122 With resonator box - the piano is part of this subdivision.
  • 314.2 Board zither variations.
    • 314.21 Ground zithers.
    • 314.22 Harp zithers.

Trough zithers (315)

The strings are stretched across the mouth of a trough

  • 315.1 Without resonator.
  • 315.2 With resonator.

Frame zithers (316)

The strings are stretched across an open frame

  • 316.1 Without resonator.
  • 316.2 With resonator.

Composite chordophones (32)

Acoustic and electro-acoustic instruments which have a resonator as an integral part of the instrument, and solid-body electric chordophones. This includes most western string instruments, including lutes such as violins and guitars, and harps.

Lutes (321)

The plane of the strings runs parallel with the resonator's surface.

  • 321.1 Bow lutes - Each string has its own flexible carrier.
  • 321.2 Yoke lutes or lyres - The strings are attached to a yoke which lies in the same plane as the sound-table and consists of two arms and a cross-bar.
    • 321.21 Bowl lyres.
    • 321.22 Box lyres.
  • 321.3 Handle lutes - The string bearer is a plain handle.
    • 321.31 Spike lutes.
      • 321.311 Spike bow lutes.
      • 321.312 Spike box lutes.
      • 321.313 Spike tube lutes.
    • 321.32 Necked lutes

Harps (322)

The plane of the strings lies perpendicular to the resonator's surface.

  • 322.1 Open harps - The harp has no pillar.
    • 322.11 Arched harps.
    • 322.12 Angular harps.
  • 322.2 Frame harps - The harp has a pillar
    • 322.21 Without tuning mechanism.
      • 322.211 Diatonic frame harps.
      • 322.212 Chromatic frame harps.
        • 322.212.1 With all strings in one plane.
        • 322.212.2 With strings in two planes crossing each other.
    • 322.22 With tuning action.
      • 322.221 With manual tuning action.
      • 322.222 With pedal action.

Harp lutes (323)

The plane of the strings lies at right angles to the sound-table; a line joining the lower ends of the strings would be perpendicular to the neck. Notched bridge

Unclassified chordophones (33)

Aerophones (4)

Aerophones - sound is primarily produced by vibrating air. The instrument itself does not vibrate, and there are no vibrating strings or membranes. List of aerophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number

Free aerophones (41)

Instruments where the vibrating air is not enclosed by the instrument itself, for example sirens, or the bullroarer. The vibrating air is not contained within the instrument.

Displacement free aerophones (411)

The air-stream meets a sharp edge, or a sharp edge is moved through the air. In either case, according to more recent views, a periodic displacement of air occurs to the alternate flanks of the edge. Examples are the swordblade or the whip.

Interruptive free aerophones (412)

The air-stream is interrupted periodically

  • 412.1 Idiophonic interruptive aerophones or reeds - The air-stream is directed against a lamella, setting it in periodic vibration to interrupt the stream intermittently. In this group also belong reeds with a 'cover,' i.e. a tube in which the air vibrates only in a secondary sense, not producing the sound but simply adding roundness and timbre to the sound made by the reed's vibration; generally recognizable by the absence of fingerholes.
    • 412.11 Concussion reeds - Two lamellae make a gap which closes periodically during their vibration.
    • 412.12 Percussion reeds - A single lamella strikes against a frame.
      • 412.121 Independent percussion reeds.
      • 412.122 Sets of percussion reeds. - Earlier organs
    • 412.13 Free-reed instruments feature a reed which vibrates within a closely fitting slot (there may be an attached pipe, but it should only vibrate in sympathy with the reed, and not have an effect on the pitch - instruments of this class can be distinguished from 422.3 by the lack of finger-holes).
    • 412.14 Band reed instruments - The air hits the sharp edge of a band under tension. The acoustics of this instrument have so far not been investigated. - (British Columbia.)
  • 412.2 Non-idiophonic interruptive instruments.
    • 412.21 Rotating aerophones.
    • 412.22 Whirling aerophones.

Plosive aerophones (413)

The sound is caused by a single compression and release of air.

Non-free aerophones (wind instruments proper) (42)

The vibrating air is contained within the instrument. This group includes most of the instruments called wind instruments in the west, such as the flute or French horn, as well as many other kinds of instruments such as conch shells.

Edge-blown aerophones or flutes (421)

The player makes a ribbon-shaped flow of air with his lips (421.1), or his breath is directed through a duct against an edge (421.2).

  • 421.1 Flutes without duct - The player himself creates a ribbon-shaped stream of air with his lips.
    • 421.11 End-blown flutes - The player blows against the sharp rim at the upper open end of a tube.
      • 421.111 Individual end-blown flutes.
        • 421.111.1 Open single end-blown flutes - The lower end of the flute is open.
          • 421.111.11 Without fingerholes.
          • 421.111.12 With fingerholes.
        • 421.111.2 Stopped single end-blown flutes - The lower end of the flute is closed.
          • 421.111.21 Without fingerholes.
          • 421.111.22 With fingerholes.
      • 421.112 Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes - Several end-blown flutes of different pitch are combined to form a single instrument.
        • 421.112.1 Open panpipes.
          • 421.112.11 Open (raft) panpipes - The pipes are tied together in the form of a board, or they are made by drilling tubes *in a board.
          • 421.112.12 Open bundle (pan-) pipes - The pipes are tied together in a round bundle.
        • 421.112.2 Stopped panpipes.
        • 421.112.3 Mixed open and stopped panpipes.
    • 421.12 Side-blown flutes - The player blows against the sharp rim of a hole in the side of the tube.
      • 421.121 (Single) side-blown flutes.
        • 421.121.1 Open side-blown flutes.
        • 421.121.2 Partly-stopped side-blown flutes - The lower end of the tube is a natural node of the pipe pierced by a small hole.
        • 421.121.3 Stopped side-blown flutes.
          • 421.121.31 Without fingerholes.
            • 421.121.311 With fixed stopped lower end - (Apparently non-existent).
            • 421.121.312 With adjustable stopped lower end - piston flutes.
          • 421.121.32 With fingerholes.
      • 421.122 Sets of side-blown flutes.
        • 421.122.1 Sets of open slide-blown flutes.
        • 421.122.2 Sets of stopped side-blown flutes.
    • 421.13 Vessel flutes (without distinct beak) The body of the pipe is not tubular but vessel-shaped - Xun.
  • 421.2 Flutes with duct or duct flutes - A narrow duct directs the air-stream against the sharp edge of a lateral orifice
    • 421.21 Flutes with external duct - The duct is outside the wall of the flute; this group includes flutes with the duct chamfered in the wall under a ring-like sleeve and other similar arrangements.
      • 421.211 (Single) flutes with external duct.
        • 421.211.1 Open flutes with external duct.
          • 421.211.11 Without fingerholes.
          • 421.211.12 With fingerholes.
        • 421.211.2 Partly-stopped flutes with external duct.
        • 421.211.3 Stopped flutes with external duct.
      • 421.212 Sets of flute with external duct.
    • 421.22 Flutes with internal duct - The duct is inside the tube. This group includes flutes with the duct formed by an internal baffle (natural node, bock of resin) and an exterior tied-on cover (cane, wood, hide).
      • 421.221 (Single) flutes with internal duct.
        • 421.221.1 Open flutes with internal duct.
          • 421.221.11 Without fingerholes - whistle
          • 421.221.12 With fingerholes - Recorder
        • 421.221.2 Partly-stopped flute with internal duct.
        • 421.221.3 Stopped flutes with internal duct.
          • 421.221.31 Without fingerholes.
            • 421.221.311 With fixed stopped lower end.
            • 421.221.312 With adjustable stopped lower end.
        • 421.221.4 Vessel flutes with duct.
          • 421.221.41 Without fingerholes.
          • 421.221.42 With fingerholes - Ocarina.
      • 421.222 Sets of flutes with internal duct.
        • 421.222.1 Sets of open flutes with internal duct.
          • 421.222.11 Without fingerholes - Open flue stops of the organ.
          • 421.222.12 With fingerholes - Double flageolet.
        • 421.222.2 Sets of partly-stopped flutes with internal duct.
        • 421.222.3 Sets of stopped flutes with internal duct.

Reed aerophones (422)

The player's breath is directed against a lamella or pair of lamellae which periodically interrupt the airflow and cause the air to be set in motion.

  • 422.1 Double reed instruments - There are two lamellae which beat against one another.
    • 422.11 (Single) oboes.
      • 422.111 With cylindrical bore.
        • 422.111.1 Without fingerholes.
        • 422.111.2 With fingerholes.
      • 422.112 With conical bore - Oboe.

    • 422.12 Sets of oboes.
      • 422.121 With cylindrical bore.
      • 422.122 With conical bore.
  • 422.2 Single reed instruments - The pipe has a single 'reed' consisting of a percussion lamella.
    • 422.21 (Single) clarinets.
      • 422.211 With cylindrical bore.
        • 422.211.1 Without fingerholes.
        • 422.211.2 With fingerholes - Western Clarinet.
      • 422.212 With conical bore - Saxophone.
    • 422.22 Sets of clarinets.
  • 422.3 Reedpipes with free reeds - The reed vibrates through [at] a closely-fitted frame. There must be fingerholes, otherwise the instrument belongs to the free reeds 412.13.
    • 422.31 Single pipes with free reed.
    • 422.32 Double pipes with free reeds.

Trumpets (423)

The player's vibrating lips set the air in motion.

  • 423.1 Natural trumpets - There are no means of changing the pitch apart from the player's lips. Examples are: Bugle, Didgeridoo and Shofar.
    • 423.11 Conches - A conch shell serves as trumpet.
      • 423.111 End-blown.
        • 423.111.1 Without mouthpiece.
        • 423.111.2 With mouthpiece.
      • 423.112 Side-blown.
    • 423.12 Tubular trumpets.
      • 423.121 End-blown trumpets - The mouth-hole faces the axis of the trumpet.
        • 423.121.1 End-blown straight trumpets - The tube is neither curved nor folded.
          • 423.121.11 Without mouthpiece.
          • 423.121.12 With mouthpiece.
        • 423.121.2 End-blown horns - The tube is curved or folded.
          • 423.121.21 Without mouthpiece.
          • 423.121.22 With mouthpiece.
      • 423.122 Side blown trompets.
  • 423.2 Chromatic trumpets - The pitch of the instrument can be altered mechanically
    • 423.21 Keyed trumpets
    • 423.22 Slide trumpets - Trombone.
    • 423.23 Valved trumpets - Euphonium, Trumpet and Tuba.
      • 423.231 Conical bore
      • 423.232 Semi-conical bore
      • 423.233 Cylindrical bore

Unclassified aerophones (43)

Electrophones (5)

  • 51. Instruments having electric action (e.g. pipe organ with electrically controlled solenoid air valves);
  • 52. Instruments having electrical amplification, such as the Neo-Bechstein piano of 1931, which had 18 microphones built into it;
  • 53. Radioelectric instruments: instruments in which sound is produced by electrical means.

WUaS Idea- and Academic Resources


WUaS is planning for an "Admitted Students' Day" for the first, matriculating Bachelor's degree class, on or around Saturday, April 14th, 2014, and the second Saturday of April for other degrees in the future.

World University & School may target Android / iPhone / smart phone, mobile internet devices with video, and group text chat for the conference method - http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Conference_Method_of_Teaching_and_Learning - of teaching and learning, as the bare minimum hardware to begin to study for a MIT OCW-centric Bachelor's degree.

Publish my article in a WUaS academic journal in this subject

Open Journal Systems. 2012. Open Journal Systems. Public Knowledge Project.

(WUaS's wiki, information technologies and criteria for this - informed by the WUaS academic journal subject matter - are developing, since you can already publish your article at http://www.academia.edu).

Select Bibliographies

Select Blogs

Select Book Groups, Study Groups, Musical Groups, etc.

Begin a Google + Hangout: https://plus.google.com/u/0/108179352492243955816/posts

Calendar: https://www.google.com/calendar/

Select Books

Wright, Craig. 2011. Listening to Music. 6th ed. (The textbook comes with the Introduction to Listening CD. See, too, the 5-CD Set for Wright's Listening to Music, 6th and Listening to Western Music, 6th). Stamford, CT: Schirmer Cengage Learning.

Wright, Craig, translated by Li Xiujun and Yu Zhigang. 2012. Listening to Music, 5th. (ISBN 978-7-108-03774-9) Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning / Three Union Press.

Wright, Craig. 2008. Listening to Music, 5th. (See, too, the 5-CD Set for Wright's Listening to Music, 5th and Listening to Western Music, 5th). Stamford, CT: Schirmer Cengage Learning.


Hart, Mickey, Jay Stevens, Fredric Lieberman. 1990. Drumming at the Edge of Magic: A Journey into the Spirit of Percussion. San Francisco, CA: Acid Test Productions.

Music and Children

Wagner, Betty. 2005. Reading Music Notes With Ease for the Earliest Beginner. (http://www.dp-db.com/reading-music-notes-with-ease-for-the-earliest-beginner). www.musicwithease.com.

Select Calendars for Events in this Subject

Select Channels

Select Communities, Email lists, etc.

(See also editable World University and School's 'You at World University' page: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/You_at_World_University).

Select Conferences Online

Select Conversations / Dialogues / Idea Competitions

Select Databases

Select Facts

Select Films

Select Film Reviews

Select Forums, Spaces, etc.

Select Funding Sources

Select Humor

Select Images, Infographics, etc.

Select Institutes, etc.

Select Interviews

Select Journals, Serials, etc.

Select Labs

Select Lectures

Select Libraries, Archives, Collections, Repositories, etc.

Free Music Archive. 2013. Free Music Archive. (The Free Music Archive is an interactive library of high-quality, legal audio downloads. The Free Music Archive is directed by WFMU, the most renowned freeform radio station in America. Radio has always offered the public free access to new music. The Free Music Archive is a continuation of that purpose, designed for the age of the internet). freemusicarchive.org/.

(See also editable World University and School's Library Resources' page: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Library_Resources).

Select Maps

Virtual Instrument Museum. 2011. Virtual Instrument Museum at Wesleyan University. (The Wesleyan World Music Collection contains over three hundred instruments. Currently 140 have been added to the Virtual Instrument Museum, and more are being added every day. For easy browsing, the site organizes the instruments in several different ways: By type; By material; By region; Alphabetically; By genre; By ensemble). Wesleyan, CT: Wesleyan University.

Select Multimedia

Select Museums

(See also editable World University and School's Museums' page: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Museums).

Select Newspapers, News

Select Office Hours

Select Photos

Select Programs, Applications, Languages, Software

Schweer, Werner. 2013. MuseScore. (Available in 20 languages). (Free music composition and notation software; WYSIWYG, notes are entered on a "virtual note sheet"; Unlimited number of staves; Up to four voices per staff; Easy and fast note entry with mouse, keyboard or MIDI; Integrated sequencer and FluidSynth software synthesizer; Import and export of MusicXML and Standard MIDI Files (SMF); Platform independent code, binaries available for Windows, Mac - e.g. Snow Leopard 6.8 - and Linux; bagpipe register). musescore.org.

Select Questions, Inquiries, Problems

Select Quotes, Quotations, etc.

Select RSS Feeds

Select Recordings

Wright, Craig. 2010. The 5-CD Set for Wright's Listening to Music, 6th and Listening to Western Music, 6th. (CD-ROMs). Stamford, CT: Schirmer Cengage Learning.

Wright, Craig. 2010. Popular & Global Music CD for Wright's Listening to Music, 6th. (CD-ROM). Stamford, CT: Schirmer Cengage Learning.

Select References

Buttwinick, Marty. 2009. Guidelines For Practicing A Musical Instrument. www.mineeds.com/Glendale/Personalized-Music-Lessons.

h2okies. 2012. IEEE Seeks Consensus on Ethernet Transfer Speed Standard. August 20. tech.slashdot.org.

Hornbostel-Sachs' Musical Instrument Classification - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hornbostel-Sachs.

Ito, Mimi. 2013. What Teens Get About the Internet That Parents Don't. March 8. The Atlantic.

Kelley, Robert T. 2001. Tips on How to Memorize Music.

Marsalis, Wynton and Yo-Yo Ma. 2010. Guidelines for practicing a musical instrument. scottmacleod.com/GuidelinesPracticingMusicalInstrument.htm.

Sarkar, Mihir. 2007. TablaNet : a real-time online musical collaboration system for Indian percussion. (Dept. of Architecture. Program in Media Arts and Sciences). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Songs for Teaching: The Definitive Source for Educational Music. 2011. Songs for Teaching: The Definitive Source for Educational Music Index. Bloomfield Hills, MI: songsforteaching.com.

yourlord. 2012. Project To Turn Classical Scores Into Copyright-Free Music Completed. August 17. entertainment.slashdot.org.

Music and Children

Inks, Heather. 2011. How to Help Children Read Music Notes. ehow.com.

Select Reviews

Select Search Engines

Select Sheet Music

Cohen, Dan. 2011. Animated Sheet Music: "So What" by Miles Davis. YouTube.

Virtual Sheet Music

Bach, J.S.. 2012. Johann Sebastian Bach's, Fugue in G minor BWV 578 piano solo sheet music - Video Score. Virtual Sheet Music.

Select Simulations, Applets and Visualizations

Select Slideshows

Select Societies, Associations, Groups, Networks, etc.

Select Study Guides

Select Syllabi

Select Teachers with Email Addresses/Contact Information

Select Tests, Exams, etc.

Select Textbooks

Select Theses, Dissertations, Papers, etc.

Select Timelines

Select Twitters

Select Video and Audio

Condliffe, Jamie. 2013. This Is Officially the Best Copyright-Free Way to Sing Happy Birthday. February 21. gizmodo.com.

Crawford, Susan. 2012. Susan Crawford on Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry & Monopoly Power in the New Gilded Age. December 12. Cambridge, MA: The Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University.

Douglass, Robert. 2011. Open Goldberg Variations - Setting Bach Free. (This project will start by creating a new engraving of the Goldberg Variations using the MuseScore notation software. The edition will be subject to scholarly review, and when it is finished, it will be available to everyone to own and use without limitations. Then we're working with pianist Kimiko Ishizaka to create a professional studio recording of the Goldbergs). kickstarter.com.

Grateful Dead. 1971. Dark Star. (Also here at Webarchive: http://www.archive.org/details/gd71-02-18.sbd.orf.107.sbeok.shnf). Portchester, NY: Grateful Dead.

Ozawa, Seiji and the Sesame Street All Animal Orchestra. 2009. Seiji Ozawa on Sesame Street - Pretty Great Peformances - Italian Street Song. Boston, MA: PBS

Part, Arvo. 1997. Björk interviews Arvo Pärt. (Björk interviews Arvo Pärt for the BBC program 'Modern Minimalists' (1997)). BBC.

Ribeiro, Walt. 2011. Daily Guitar And Music Lessons. youtube.com/user/waltribeiro

Ribeiro, Walt. 2007. How to Read Music. squidoo.com/read-music

Ribeiro, Walt. 2007. How to Read Music. (Walt Ribeiro has posted a variety of music theory videos). youtube.com

Snicket, Lemony (Daniel Handler), and Nathaniel Stookey. 2010. Lemony Snicket - The Composer Is Dead. San Francisco, CA: Davis Symphony Hall.

Sniderman, Zach. 2011. How Do You Create an Orchestra Using YouTube?. January 19. Mashable.

Starner, Thad. 2013. Thad Starner on Singularity 1 on 1: Reduce the Time Between Intention and Action. Nikola Danaylov Youtube channel.

Whitacre, Eric. 2013. Eric Whitacre: Virtual Choir Live. )('embrace the latency in Skype choirs'). March. TED Talks.

Select Video Conferences

Select Websites

Free Online Education.com. 2011. Free Online Education.com. Free Online Education.com.

Google Music: https://play.google.com/music/listen

Piano Notes online. First Music Lesson. You can click on the buttons below to hear the sounds of piano. apronus.com

Pianolicious. 2011. Pianolicious - Free Sheet Music. pianolicious.blogspot.com.

Musopen. 2012. Browse music: This page allows you to browse our music by composer, performer, instrument, form and time period. ("Musopen (www.musopen.org) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit focused on improving access and exposure to music by creating free resources and educational materials. We provide recordings, sheet music, and textbooks to the public for free, without copyright restrictions. Put simply, our mission is to set music free."). musopen.org.

Mutopia. 2010. The Mutopia Project: Free sheet music for everyone - Classical and Contemporary Music. .mutopiaproject.org

Blank Sheet Music

Blank Sheet Music. 2011. http://www.blanksheetmusic.net/

Free Blank Sheet Music.org. 2011. http://freeblanksheetmusic.org/

Free Blank Sheet Music.com. 2011. http://www.free-blank-sheet-music.com/

Instrument Tuners

Chime v1.2 - Online Tuner and Metronome. 2012. Chime v1.2 - Online Tuner and Metronome. onlinetunermetronome.com.

Online Instrument Tuner. 2012. http://www.get-tuned.com/online_instrument_tuner.php Online Instrument Tuner. get-tuned.com.

The Seventh String Tuner. 2009. The Seventh String Tuner.

Select Wikis

Musical Scores: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Library_Resources#Musical_Scores

For courses in Music, see World University and School's 'Music' subject: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Music

8notes.com. 2010. 8 Notes. (Free Sheet Music, Riffs, Lessons and Tools for musicians who play).

Choral Public Domain Library. 2010. Welcome to ChoralWiki, home of the Choral Public Domain Library!. (CPDL is one of the world's largest free sheet music sites, begun in 1998. You can use CPDL to find scores, texts, translations, and information about composers.) www2.cpdl.org/wiki

International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) - Petrucci Music Library. 2010. International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) - Petrucci Music Library. (The Petrucci Music Library's goal is to create a virtual library containing all public domain music, as well as music from composers who are willing to share their work with the world without charge). Edwardsville, IL: Project Petrucci.

Subjects' Social Networking Sites


World University and School Links

Assorted Music subjects at WUaS:

Bach - J.S. Bach: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Johann_Sebastian_Bach

Bagpipe Tutorials: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Bagpipe_Tutorials

Barber Shop Quartet Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Barber_Shop_Quartet_Singing

Beethoven - Ludwig van Beethoven: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Ludwig_van_Beethoven

Bluegrass music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Bluegrass_music

Blues: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Blues

Blues Piano: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Blues_Piano

Blues Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Blues_Singing

Brahms, Johannes: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Brahms,_Johannes

Carnatic Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Carnatic_Music

Carnatic Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Carnatic_Singing

Celtic Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Celtic_Music

Chamber Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Chamber_Music

Classical Indian Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Classical_Indian_Music

Classical Western Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Classical_Western_Music

Computer Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Computer_Music

Dvorak, Antonin: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Dvorak,_Antonin

Ethnomusicology: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Ethnomusicology

Folk rock music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Folk_rock_music

Grateful Dead: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Grateful_Dead

Harmony: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Harmony

Improvisation: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Improvisation

IPhone as musical instrument: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/IPhone_as_musical_instrument

Jazz: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Jazz

Madrigal Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Madrigal_Singing

Mendelssohn, Felix: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Mendelssohn,_Felix

Middle Eastern Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Middle_Eastern_Music

Mozart - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart

Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Music

Music Composition: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Music_Composition

Music Education: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Music_Education

Musical Instrument Making: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Musical_Instrument_Making

Musical Jamming: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Musical_Jamming

New Orleans Jazz: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/New_Orleans_Jazz

Opera: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Opera

Practicing - Playing a Musical Instrument: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Practicing_-_Playing_a_Musical_Instrument

Raga: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Raga

Rock and Roll: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Rock_and_Roll

Scat Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Scat_Singing

Sight Reading Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Sight_Reading_Music

Singing: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Singing

Singing Descant: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Singing_Descant

Singing for Kids / Children: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Singing_for_Kids_/_Children

Singing Harmony: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Singing_Harmony

Singing Walking Bass Lines: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Singing_Walking_Bass_Lines

Suzuki Method: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Suzuki_Method

Symphony Orchestra at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Symphony_Orchestra_at_World_University_and_School

Virtual Choir: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Virtual_Choir

World Music: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_Music

World University Music School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Music_School

WUaS Navigation

Academic Advising at WUaS

Academic Press at World University and School

Academic Press at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Academic_Press_at_World_University_and_School

Access to Live, or Email, University Technical Expertise

Ask a question in a specific discipline, or find, for example, a Robotics' or Computer programmer, or Translator, easily and freely.

Additional Categories

Admissions at World University and School

Admissions' Department: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Admissions_at_World_University_and_School

Flyer seeking degree-oriented, WUaS students: 'Quaker-informed World University & School seeks friendly, undergraduate students for free, online, Greatest Universities-centric, bachelor’s degrees to apply in the autumn of 2013, for matriculation in autumn 2014' - http://scottmacleod.com/WUaSFriendsFlyerforProspectiveStudentApplicants.pdf - and accessible here, also - http://scottmacleod.com/WUaSNoticeArchive.html. WUaS holds open, electronically-mediated, hour-long, monthly business meeting on the second Saturdays at 9 am Pacific Time, in the manner of Quakers - email worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com if you'd like to participate.

Blog at World University and School


Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at World University and School

Bookstore / Computer Store (New & Used) at WUaS: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Bookstore_/_Computer_Store_%28New_%26_Used%29_at_WUaS

with educational electronics, as well; with musical instruments; value pricing ... 2% below market, consistently; available via mail and electronically;

Calendar (Schedule what you'd like to teach)

Join the World University and School Google + Group to add to its wiki-like calendar to teach an open, free class or course, converse about ideas, and jam (e.g. musically or theater improvisation): https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/108179352492243955816/ .


Career counseling: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Career_counseling

Finding / creating a job you really love: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Finding_/_creating_a_job_you_really_love

WUaS Job hunting: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_Job_hunting


Counseling: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Counseling


... in a virtual world


Many thanks to each of you!

Please feel free to hyperlink your name to a location of your choice (or tell WUaS where to link to - worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com). Please do not hesitate to let WUaS know if you think that somebody (including yourself) has been forgotten, now or in the future; please include a URL, which is, of course, one main way identity created on the internet.

Digital To Do


Brainwave device / Headset

Broadcast to radio frequency

Broadcast to TV

Create EMail group for page

Digital Text to Audio file format (Browse Aloud / Read Aloud?)

MIT OCW Mirror Site Instructions: http://ocw.mit.edu/about/mirror-site-program/mirror-site-instructions/


Publish to DVD


Send to phone




Free Degrees / Credit

MIT OCW Audio Video Courses: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/audio-video-courses/

Admissions at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Admissions_at_World_University_and_School

Conference Method of Teaching and Learning: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Conference_Method_of_Teaching_and_Learning

The College at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/The_College_at_World_University_and_School

Ph.D. Degrees at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Ph.D._Degrees_at_World_University_and_School

World University Law School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Law_School

World University Medical School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Medical_School

World University Music School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Music_School

WUaS International Baccalaureate Diploma and Programme: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_International_Baccalaureate_Diploma_and_Programme
(beginning with United Nations' languages - Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian, Spanish)

In Google Earth

Google Earth.

In Virtual World

3D Learn. 2013. http://www.learningin3d.info/

Active Worlds Educational Universe (AWEDU). 2012. http://www.activeworlds.com/edu/

Alice. 2012. http://www.alice.org/

Minecraft. 2012. www.minecraft.net

Edusim. 2013. http://edusim3d.com/

Gifted Kids.ie. 2013. http://www.giftedkids.ie/daynuv.html

ISTE – SIGMS. 2013. http://sigms.iste.wikispaces.net/secondlifeplayground2010

Open Cobalt. 2013. http://www.opencobalt.org/

OpenSim. 2012. http://opensimulator.org/wiki/Main_Page (http://www.scribd.com/doc/57959626/OpenSimulator-School-Quick-Start-Guide)

Open Croquet. 2012. http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?OpenCroquet and http://www.opencroquet.org/

Open Wonderland. 2012. http://openwonderland.org/

Primary Games. 2013. http://www.primarygames.com/arcade/virtualworlds.php

Quest Atlantis. 2012. http://atlantisremixed.org/ (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZoT3pilNPI).

SimScience. 2012. http://simscience.org/

Second Life - Harvard's virtual island. 2012. http://slurl.com/secondlife/Berkman/115/53/25 - and teach, learn and share ideas - in group voice chat, or in group type chat, and via building.

Unity3D. 2012. http://unity3d.com/

WiloStar3D. 2013. https://www.wilostar3d.com/

Add a learning-oriented virtual world here:

Travel to this virtual island to learn building:

Item Number

Global ID and Multiple IDs - see https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Requests_for_comment/New_sites_system

Bar code


Learning Networking

Teach and Learn using free Social Networking software to share what courses, etc., you find edifying, what you enjoy learning ....

Academia.edu's World University and School - http://worlduniversityandschool.academia.edu/

Delicious.com's World University and School - http://www.delicious.com/WorldUniversityandSchool

Facebook.com's World University and School - http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=48753608141 ('This group may be archived').

Good Reads - http://www.goodreads.com/group/show/99021-worlduniversityandschool

Google + Profiles - worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com - Scott MacLeod - https://plus.google.com/115890623333932577910/

Google + Profiles Company page - worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com - World University and School - https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/108179352492243955816/108179352492243955816/posts

Google Groups' World University and School - http://groups.google.com/group/World-University-and-School


LinkedIn's World University and School - http://www.linkedin.com/groups/World-University-School-4024337

Quora - http://www.quora.com/

Research Gate - http://www.researchgate.net/

Redditt.com's World University and School - http://www.reddit.com/user/WorldUnivandSch/

Tribe.net's World University and School - http://tribes.tribe.net/worlduniversityandschool

Twitter.com's World University and School - http://twitter.com/WorldUnivandSch

World University & School 'subject page' group

World University & School Share This

Yahoo Groups' World University and School: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/worlduniversityandschool/

RSS Feed

TV-Live Broadcasting

Broadcast to television

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software to the web:

Google + Hangouts - https://plus.google.com/hangouts

Justin TV - http://www.justin.tv

Livestream TV - http://www.livestream.com

Ustream TV - http://ustream.tv

Video Communication

Teach and learn using free TV-Live Broadcasting software

Free video conferencing

iChat - http://www.apple.com/macosx/what-is-macosx/ichat.html

Skype - http://www.skype.com/

Free, group video conferencing

AnyMeeting - http://anymeeting.com/homepage/

Google + Hangout - https://tools.google.com/dlpage/hangoutplugin

Zoom.us - Cloud HD Video Meetings - http://zoom.us/

Universal Translator at WUaS


Google Translate language:

Sugar Labs: Translation System language:


The "Universitian" Newspaper at World University and School

The "Universitian" Newspaper at World University and School

Wiki Software for Courses

Media Wiki - http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki

PB Works - http://pbworks.com/

Wet Paint - http://wikisineducation.wetpaint.com/

Wikia - http://www.wikia.com/Wikia

Wikispaces - http://www.wikispaces.com/

Wikidata / Bots


World University and School Licensing

World University and School - like Wikipedia with Greatest Universities' OpenCourseWare (not endorsed by MIT OCW) - incorporated as a nonprofit effective April 2010 and has been a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt, educational organization charity through November 12, 2012, and is re-instating its 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status, as of September 2013, effective 2010.

World University & School is a community of learners and teachers who value — and are themselves strengthened by — the rich diversity of its participants. In order to cultivate a flourishing teaching, learning and creating conversation in a diverse and complex world, WUaS welcomes all languages, students, families, faculty, board members, and staff with differences based on (but not limited to) race, color, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, family structure, and economic background.

All content on this site is freely available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ .

The World University and School program is not endorsed by MIT or MIT OpenCourseWare.

WUaS: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University
Courses: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Courses
Subjects: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Subjects
Languages: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Languages
Library Resources: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Library_Resources
Nation States: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Nation_States
You at World University: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/You_at_World_University
Educational Software: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Educational_Software
Museums: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Museums
Research: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Research
Hardware Resource Possibilities: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Hardware_Resource_Possibilities
Frequently Asked Questions at World University & School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Frequently_Asked_Questions
World University Foundation: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Foundation

SUBJECT TEMPLATE: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/SUBJECT_TEMPLATE
Volunteers at World University and School: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Volunteers

Home: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University
For questions, or help editing a page, email: worlduniversityandschool@gmail.com

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